Carolyn Ernst Print


  240-228-9922

  Carolyn.Ernst@jhuapl.edu

: SES

:   Planetary Scientist

:  Planetary

  Cassini, ISS, Deep Impact, Europa Clipper, EIS, Hayabusa 2, ONC, MESSENGER, MDIS, MLA, New Horizons, LORRI, OSIRIS-REx, OLA

 
Degree Field of Study Year Attained Institution Name
Ph.D. Geological Sciences 2008 Brown University
Sc.M. Geological Sciences 2003 Brown University
Sc.B. Physics 2001 Brown University

My research focuses on impact cratering and the surface evolution of planets, satellites, and small bodies through the use of laboratory experiments, spacecraft data (multi-spectral imaging and laser altimetry), and numerical models. I have worked extensively designing and conducting laboratory impact experiments at the NASA Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR) and the APL Planetary Impact Laboratory (PIL). Many of my current projects involve the use of stereophotoclinometry techniques to construct shape models of various asteroids, comets, and satellites from high-resolution spacecraft images. I analyze these models and images with the help of APL’s Small Body Mapping Tool to examine and compare the geologies and evolutions of these bodies.

I am fortunate to have been involved in several spacecraft missions. Currently, I am the Instrument Scientist of the Europa Imaging System (EIS) on the NASA Europa Mission, a participating scientist on the JAXA Hayabusa2 mission to asteroid Ryugu, a participating scientist for the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) instrument on Cassini, and a member of the Long-Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) instrument team on New Horizons. My previous mission experience includes MESSENGER (MLA deputy instrument scientist, MDIS instrument team associate, science team associate) and Deep Impact (science team associate).

 
AGU Index Category AGU Index Sub-Category
PLANETARY SCIENCES: SOLID SURFACE PLANETS Impact phenomena, cratering
PLANETARY SCIENCES: SOLID SURFACE PLANETS Remote sensing
PLANETARY SCIENCES: SOLID SURFACE PLANETS Surface materials and properties
PLANETARY SCIENCES: SOLID SURFACE PLANETS Instruments and techniques
PLANETARY SCIENCES: COMETS AND SMALL BODIES Impact phenomena
PLANETARY SCIENCES: COMETS AND SMALL BODIES Origin and evolution
PLANETARY SCIENCES: COMETS AND SMALL BODIES Surfaces
PLANETARY SCIENCES: COMETS AND SMALL BODIES Instruments and techniques
PLANETARY SCIENCES: COMETS AND SMALL BODIES Physics and chemistry of materials
PLANETARY SCIENCES: SOLAR SYSTEM OBJECTS Asteroids
PLANETARY SCIENCES: SOLAR SYSTEM OBJECTS Comets
PLANETARY SCIENCES: SOLAR SYSTEM OBJECTS Mercury
PLANETARY SCIENCES: SOLAR SYSTEM OBJECTS Comparative planetology
PLANETARY SCIENCES: SOLAR SYSTEM OBJECTS Europa
PLANETARY SCIENCES: SOLAR SYSTEM OBJECTS Martian satellites
PLANETARY SCIENCES: SOLAR SYSTEM OBJECTS Saturnian satellites
:
Start Year End Year Description
2010 Current Senior Professional Staff, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory
2008 2010 Postdoctoral Fellow, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory
2001 2008 Research Assistant, Brown University
Start Year End Year Description
2016 Current Participating Scientist, Hayabusa2
2015 Current Participating Scientist, Cassini
2015 Current Instrument Scientist, Europa Imaging System, Europa Multiple Flyby Mission
2015 2015 Member, Formulation Assessment and Support Team, Asteroid Redirect Mission
2009 2016 Deputy Instrument Scientist, Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA), MESSENGER
2009 2016 Instrument Team Associate, Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS), MESSENGER
2008 2016 Science Team Associate, MESSENGER
2005 2006 Science Team Associate, Deep Impact
Year Description
2014 NASA Early Career Fellowship
2004–2007 NASA Graduate Student Researchers Program Fellow
2001–2002 Brown University First-Year Fellowship for Graduate Study
:
The following publication information was downloaded from http://www.researcherId.com/rid/I-4902-2012.
Blewett, David T., Stadermann, Amanda C., Susorney, Hannah C., Ernst, Carolyn M., Xiao, Zhiyong, Chabot, Nancy L., Denevi, Brett W., Murchie, Scott L., McCubbin, Francis M., Kinczyk, Mallory J., Gillis-Davis, Jeffrey J., Solomon, Sean C., (2016), Analysis of MESSENGER high-resolution images of Mercury's hollows and implications for hollow formation, Journal of Geophysical Research-Planets, 121, 1798-1813

Chabot, Nancy L., Ernst, Carolyn M., Paige, David A., Nair, Hari, Denevi, Brett W., Blewett, David T., Murchie, Scott L., Deutsch, Ariel N., Head, James W., Solomon, Sean C., (2016), Imaging Mercury's polar deposits during MESSENGER's low-altitude campaign, Geophysical Research Letters, 43, 9461-9468

Cheng, A. F., Michel, R., Jutzi, M., Rivkin, A. S., Stickle, A., Barnouin, O., Ernst, C., Atchison, J., Pravec, P., Richardson, D. C., AIDA Team, AIM Team, (2016), Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment mission: Kinetic impactor, Planetary and Space Science, 121, 27-35

Deutsch, Ariel N., Chabot, Nancy L., Mazarico, Erwan, Ernst, Carolyn M., Head, James W., Neumann, Gregory A., Solomon, Sean C., (2016), Comparison of areas in shadow from imaging and altimetry in the north polar region of Mercury and implications for polar ice deposits, Icarus, 280, 158-171

Peplowski, Patrick N., Klima, Rachel L., Lawrence, David J., Ernst, Carolyn M., Denevi, Brett W., Frank, Elizabeth A., Goldsten, John O., Murchie, Scott L., Nittler, Larry R., Solomon, Sean C., (2016), Remote sensing evidence for an ancient carbon-bearing crust on Mercury, Nature Geoscience, 9, 273-+

Rodgers, Douglas J., Ernst, Carolyn M., Barnouin, Olivier S., Murchie, Scott L., Chabot, Nancy L., (2016), Methodology for finding and evaluating safe landing sites on small bodies, Planetary and Space Science, 134, 71-81

Susorney, Hannah C. M., Barnouin, Olivier S., Ernst, Carolyn M., Johnson, Catherine L., (2016), Morphometry of impact craters on Mercury from MESSENGER altimetry and imaging, Icarus, 271, 180-193

Watters, Thomas R., Daud, Katie, Banks, Maria E., Selvans, Michelle M., Chapman, Clark R., Ernst, Carolyn M., (2016), Recent tectonic activity on Mercury revealed by small thrust fault scarps, Nature Geoscience, 9, 743-747

Weaver, H. A., Buie, M. W., Buratti, B. J., Grundy, W. M., Lauer, T. R., Olkin, C. B., Parker, A. H., Porter, S. B., Showalter, M. R., Spencer, J. R., Stern, S. A., Verbiscer, A. J., McKinnon, W. B., Moore, J. M., Robbins, S. J., Schenk, P., Singer, K. N., Barnouin, O. S., Cheng, A. F., Ernst, C. M., Lisse, C. M., Lennings, D. E., Lunsford, A. W., Reuter, D. C., Hamilton, D. P., Kaufmann, D. E., Ennico, K., Young, L. A., Beyer, R. A., Binzel, R. P., Bray, V. J., Chaikin, A. L., Cook, J. C., Cruiksh, D. P., Dalle Ore, C. M., Earle, A. M., Gladstone, G. R., Howett, C. J. A., Linscott, I. R., Nimmo, F., Parker, J. Wm., Philippe, S., Protopapa, S., Reitsema, H. J., Schmitt, B., Stryk, T., Summers, M. E., Tsang, C. C. C., Throop, H. H. B., White, O. L., Zangari, A. M., (2016), The small satellites of Pluto as observed by New Horizons, Science, 351, 1281-+

Weider, Shoshana Z., Nittler, Larry R., Murchie, Scott L., Peplowski, Patrick N., Mccoy, Timothy J., Kerber, Laura, Klimczak, Christian, Ernst, Carolyn M., Goudge, Timothy A., Starr, Richard D., Izenberg, Noam R., Klima, Rachel L., Solomon, Sean C., (2016), Evidence from MESSENGER for sulfur- and carbon-driven explosive volcanism on Mercury, Geophysical Research Letters, 43, 3653-3661

Ackiss, S. E., Buczkowski, D. L., Ernst, C. M., McBeck, J. A., Seelos, K. D., (2015), Knob heights within circum-Caloris geologic units on Mercury: Interpretations of the geologic history of the region, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 430, 542-550

DeSouza, I., Daly, M. G., Barnouin, S., Ernst, C. M., Bierhaus, E. B., (2015), Improved techniques for size-frequency distribution analysis in the planetary sciences: Application to blocks on 25143 Itokawa, Icarus, 247, 77-80

Domingue, Deborah L., Murchie, Scott L., Denevi, Brett W., Ernst, Carolyn M., Chabot, Nancy L., (2015), Mercury's global color mosaic: An update from MESSENGER's orbital observations, Icarus, 257, 477-488

Ernst, Carolyn M., Denevi, Brett W., Barnouin, Olivier S., Klimczak, Christian, Chabot, Nancy L., Head, James W., Murchie, Scott L., Neumann, Gregory A., Prockter, Louise M., Robinson, Mark S., Solomon, Sean C., Watters, Thomas R., (2015), Stratigraphy of the Caloris basin, Mercury: Implications for volcanic history and basin impact melt, Icarus, 250, 413-429

Murchie, Scott L., Klima, Rachel L., Denevi, Brett W., Ernst, Carolyn M., Keller, Mary R., Domingue, Deborah L., Blewett, David T., Chabot, Nancy L., Hash, Christopher D., Malaret, Erick, Izenberg, Noam R., Vilas, Faith, Nittler, Larry R., Gillis-Davis, Jeffrey J., Head, James W., Solomon, Sean C., (2015), Orbital multispectral mapping of Mercury with the MESSENGER Mercury Dual Imaging System: Evidence for the origins of plains units and low-reflectance material, Icarus, 254, 287-305

Perry, Mark E., Neumann, Gregory A., Phillips, Roger J., Barnouin, Olivier S., Ernst, Carolyn M., Kahan, Daniel S., Solomon, Sean C., Zuber, Maria T., Smith, David E., Hauck, Steven A., II, Peale, Stanton J., Margot, Jean-Luc, Mazarico, Erwan, Johnson, Catherine L., Gaskell, Robert W., Roberts, James H., McNutt, Ralph L., Jr., Oberst, Juergen, (2015), The low-degree shape of Mercury, Geophysical Research Letters, 42, 6951-6958

Stern, S. A., Bagenal, F., Ennico, K., Gladstone, G. R., Grundy, W. M., McKinnon, W. B., Moore, J. M., Olkin, C. B., Spencer, J. R., Weaver, H. A., Young, L. A., Andert, T., Andrews, J., Banks, M., Bauer, B., Bauman, J., Barnouin, O. S., Bedini, P., Beisser, K., Beyer, R. A., Bhaskaran, S., Binzel, R. P., Birath, E., Bird, M., Bogan, D. J., Bowman, A., Bray, V. J., Brozovic, M., Bryan, C., Buckley, M. R., Buie, M. W., Buratti, B. J., Bushman, S. S., Calloway, A., Carcich, B., Cheng, A. F., Conard, S., Conrad, C. A., Cook, J. C., Cruikshank, D. P., Custodio, O. S., Ore, C. M. Dalle, Deboy, C., Dischner, Z. J. B., Dumont, P., Earle, A. M., Elliott, H. A., Ercol, J., Ernst, C. M., Finley, T., Flanigan, S. H., Fountain, G., Freeze, M. J., Greathouse, T., Green, J. L., Guo, Y., Hahn, M., Hamilton, D. P., Hamilton, S. A., Hanley, J., Harch, A., Hart, H. M., Hersman, C. B., Hill, A., Hill, M. E., Hinson, D. P., Holdridge, M. E., Horanyi, M., Howard, A. D., Howett, C. J. A., Jackman, C., Jacobson, R. A., Jennings, D. E., Kammer, J. A., Kang, H. K., Kaufmann, D. E., Kollmann, P., Krimigis, S. M., Kusnierkiewicz, D., Lauer, T. R., Lee, J. E., Lindstrom, K. L., Linscott, I. R., Lisse, C. M., Lunsford, A. W., Mallder, V. A., Martin, N., McComas, D. J., McNutt, R. L., Jr., Mehoke, D., Mehoke, T., Melin, E. D., Mutchler, M., Nelson, D., Nimmo, F., Nunez, J. I., Ocampo, A., Owen, W. M., Paetzold, M., Page, B., Parker, A. H., Parker, J. W., Pelletier, F., Peterson, J., Pinkine, N., Piquette, M., Porter, S. B., Protopapa, S., Redfern, J., Reitsema, H. J., Reuter, D. C., Roberts, J. H., Robbins, S. J., Rogers, G., Rose, D., Runyon, K., Retherford, K. D., Ryschkewitsch, M. G., Schenk, P., Schindhelm, E., Sepan, B., Showalter, M. K., Singer, K. N., Soluri, M., Stanbridge, D., Steffl, A. J., Strobel, D. F., Stryk, T., Summers, M. E., Szalay, J. R., Tapley, M., Taylor, A., Taylor, H., Throop, H. B., Tsang, C. C. C., Tyler, G. L., Umurhan, O. M., Verbiscer, A. J., Versteeg, M. H., Vincent, M., Webber, R., Weidner, S., Weigle, G. E., II, White, O. L., Whittenburg, K., Williams, B. G., Williams, K., Williams, S., Woods, W. W., Zangari, A. M., Zirnstein, E., (2015), The Pluto system: Initial results from its exploration by New Horizons, Science, 350, 292-+

Blewett, David T., Levy, Connor L., Chabot, Nancy L., Denevi, Brett W., Ernst, Carolyn M., Murchie, Scott L., (2014), Phase-ratio images of the surface of Mercury: Evidence for differences in sub-resolution texture, Icarus, 242, 142-148

Chabot, Nancy L., Ernst, Carolyn M., Denevi, Brett W., Nair, Hari, Deutsch, Ariel N., Blewett, David T., Murchie, Scott L., Neumann, Gregory A., Mazarico, Erwan, Paige, David A., Harmon, John K., Head, James W., Solomon, Sean C., (2014), Images of surface volatiles in Mercury's polar craters acquired by the MESSENGER spacecraft, Geology, 42, 1051-1054

Mazrouei, S., Daly, M. G., Barnouin, O. S., Ernst, C. M., DeSouza, I., (2014), Block distributions on Itokawa, Icarus, 229, 181-189

Roberts, James H., Kahn, Eliezer G., Barnouin, Olivier S., Ernst, Carolyn M., Prockter, Louise M., Gaskell, Robert W., (2014), Origin and flatness of ponds on asteroid 433 Eros, Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 49, 1735-1748

Blair, David M., Freed, Andrew M., Byrne, Paul K., Klimczak, Christian, Prockter, Louise M., Ernst, Carolyn M., Solomon, Sean C., Melosh, H. Jay, Zuber, Maria T., (2013), The origin of graben and ridges in Rachmaninoff, Raditladi, and Mozart basins, Mercury, Journal of Geophysical Research-Planets, 118

Blewett, David T., Vaughan, William M., Xiao, Zhiyong, Chabot, Nancy L., Denevi, Brett W., Ernst, Carolyn M., Helbert, Joern, D'Amore, Mario, Maturilli, Alessandro, Head, James W., Solomon, Sean C., (2013), Mercury's hollows: Constraints on formation and composition from analysis of geological setting and spectral reflectance, Journal of Geophysical Research-Planets, 118, 1013-1032

Chabot, Nancy L., Ernst, Carolyn M., Harmon, John K., Murchie, Scott L., Solomon, Sean C., Blewett, David T., Denevi, Brett W., (2013), Craters hosting radar-bright deposits in Mercury's north polar region: Areas of persistent shadow determined from MESSENGER images, Journal of Geophysical Research-Planets, 118

Denevi, Brett W., Ernst, Carolyn M., Meyer, Heather M., Robinson, Mark S., Murchie, Scott L., Whitten, Jennifer L., Head, James W., Watters, Thomas R., Solomon, Sean C., Ostrach, Lillian R., Chapman, Clark R., Byrne, Paul K., Klimczak, Christian, Peplowski, Patrick N., (2013), The distribution and origin of smooth plains on Mercury, Journal of Geophysical Research-Planets, 118, 891-907

Klimczak, Christian, Ernst, Carolyn M., Byrne, Paul K., Solomon, Sean C., Watters, Thomas R., Murchie, Scott L., Preusker, Frank, Balcerski, Jeffrey A., (2013), Insights into the subsurface structure of the Caloris basin, Mercury, from assessments of mechanical layering and changes in long-wavelength topography, Journal of Geophysical Research-Planets, 118, 2030-2044

Neish, C. D., Blewett, D. T., Harmon, J. K., Coman, E. I., Cahill, J. T. S., Ernst, C. M., (2013), A comparison of rayed craters on the moon and mercury, Journal of Geophysical Research-Planets, 118, 2247-2261

Neumann, Gregory A., Cavanaugh, John F., Sun, Xiaoli, Mazarico, Erwan M., Smith, David E., Zuber, Maria T., Mao, Dandan, Paige, David A., Solomon, Sean C., Ernst, Carolyn M., Barnouin, Olivier S., (2013), Bright and Dark Polar Deposits on Mercury: Evidence for Surface Volatiles, Science, 339, 296-300

Chabot, Nancy L., Ernst, Carolyn M., Denevi, Brett W., Harmon, John K., Murchie, Scott L., Blewett, David T., Solomon, Sean C., Zhong, Ellen D., (2012), Areas of permanent shadow in Mercury's south polar region ascertained by MESSENGER orbital imaging, Geophysical Research Letters, 39

Denevi, Brett W., Koeber, Steven D., Robinson, Mark S., Garry, W. Brent, Hawke, B. Ray, Tran, Thanh N., Lawrence, Samuel J., Keszthelyi, Laszlo P., Barnouin, Olivier S., Ernst, Carolyn M., Tornabene, Livio L., (2012), Physical constraints on impact melt properties from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera images, Icarus, 219, 665-675

Hurley, Dana M., Gladstone, G. Randall, Stern, S. Alan, Retherford, Kurt D., Feldman, Paul D., Pryor, Wayne, Egan, Anthony F., Greathouse, Thomas K., Kaufmann, David E., Steffl, Andrew J., Parker, Joel William, Miles, Paul F., Horvath, David, Davis, Michael W., Versteeg, Maarten H., Slater, David C., Hendrix, Amanda R., Hibbitts, Charles A., Ernst, Carolyn M., Vervack, Ronald J., Jr., Grieves, Gregory A., (2012), Modeling of the vapor release from the LCROSS impact: 2. Observations from LAMP, Journal of Geophysical Research-Planets, 117

Klimczak, Christian, Watters, Thomas R., Ernst, Carolyn M., Freed, Andrew M., Byrne, Paul K., Solomon, Sean C., Blair, David M., Head, James W., (2012), Deformation associated with ghost craters and basins in volcanic smooth plains on Mercury: Strain analysis and implications for plains evolution, Journal of Geophysical Research-Planets, 117

Watters, Thomas R., Solomon, Sean C., Klimczak, Christian, Freed, Andrew M., Head, James W., Ernst, Carolyn M., Blair, David M., Goudge, Timothy A., Byrne, Paul K., (2012), Extension and contraction within volcanically buried impact craters and basins on Mercury, Geology, 40, 1123-1126

Baker, David M. H., Head, James W., Schon, Samuel C., Ernst, Carolyn M., Prockter, Louise M., Murchie, Scott L., Denevi, Brett W., Solomon, Sean C., Strom, Robert G., (2011), The transition from complex crater to peak-ring basin on Mercury: New observations from MESSENGER flyby data and constraints on basin formation models, Planetary and Space Science, 59, 1932-1948

Blewett, David T., Chabot, Nancy L., Denevi, Brett W., Ernst, Carolyn M., Head, James W., Izenberg, Noam R., Murchie, Scott L., Solomon, Sean C., Nittler, Larry R., McCoy, Timothy J., Xiao, Zhiyong, Baker, David M. H., Fassett, Caleb I., Braden, Sarah E., Oberst, Juergen, Scholten, Frank, Preusker, Frank, Hurwitz, Debra M., (2011), Hollows on Mercury: MESSENGER Evidence for Geologically Recent Volatile-Related Activity, Science, 333, 1856-1859

Head, James W., Chapman, Clark R., Strom, Robert G., Fassett, Caleb I., Denevi, Brett W., Blewett, David T., Ernst, Carolyn M., Watters, Thomas R., Solomon, Sean C., Murchie, Scott L., Prockter, Louise M., Chabot, Nancy L., Gillis-Davis, Jeffrey J., Whitten, Jennifer L., Goudge, Timothy A., Baker, David M. H., Hurwitz, Debra M., Ostrach, Lillian R., Xiao, Zhiyong, Merline, William J., Kerber, Laura, Dickson, James L., Oberst, Juergen, Byrne, Paul K., Klimczak, Christian, Nittler, Larry R., (2011), Flood Volcanism in the Northern High Latitudes of Mercury Revealed by MESSENGER, Science, 333, 1853-1856

Nittler, Larry R., Starr, Richard D., Weider, Shoshana Z., McCoy, Timothy J., Boynton, William V., Ebel, Denton S., Ernst, Carolyn M., Evans, Larry G., Goldsten, John O., Hamara, David K., Lawrence, David J., McNutt, Ralph L., Jr., Schlemm, Charles E., II, Solomon, Sean C., Sprague, Ann L., (2011), The Major-Element Composition of Mercury's Surface from MESSENGER X-ray Spectrometry, Science, 333, 1847-1850

Perry, Mark E., Kahan, Daniel S., Barnouin, Olivier S., Ernst, Carolyn M., Solomon, Sean C., Zuber, Maria T., Smith, David E., Phillips, Roger J., Srinivasan, Dipak K., Oberst, Juergen, Asmar, Sami W., (2011), Measurement of the radius of Mercury by radio occultation during the MESSENGER flybys, Planetary and Space Science, 59, 1925-1931

Schon, Samuel C., Head, James W., Baker, David M. H., Ernst, Carolyn M., Prockter, Louise M., Murchie, Scott L., Solomon, Sean C., (2011), Eminescu impact structure: Insight into the transition from complex crater to peak-ring basin on Mercury, Planetary and Space Science, 59, 1949-1959

Blewett, David T., Denevi, Brett W., Robinson, Mark S., Ernst, Carolyn M., Purucker, Michael E., Solomon, Sean C., (2010), The apparent lack of lunar-like swirls on Mercury: Implications for the formation of lunar swirls and for the agent of space weathering, Icarus, 209, 239-246

Ernst, Carolyn M., Murchie, Scott L., Barnouin, Olivier S., Robinson, Mark S., Denevi, Brett W., Blewett, David T., Head, James W., Izenberg, Noam R., Solomon, Sean C., Roberts, James H., (2010), Exposure of spectrally distinct material by impact craters on Mercury: Implications for global stratigraphy, Icarus, 209, 210-223

Kimberley, J., Ramesh, K. T., Barnouin, O. S., Swaminathan, P. K., Ernst, C. M., (2010), The Dynamic Fracture of Rocky Bodies: Applications to Planetary Impact Problems, Johns Hopkins Apl Technical Digest, 28, 242-243

Prockter, Louise M., Ernst, Carolyn M., Denevi, Brett W., Chapman, Clark R., Head, James W., III, Fassett, Caleb I., Merline, William J., Solomon, Sean C., Watters, Thomas R., Strom, Robert G., Cremonese, Gabriele, Marchi, Simone, Massironi, Matteo, (2010), Evidence for Young Volcanism on Mercury from the Third MESSENGER Flyby, Science, 329, 668-671

Denevi, Brett W., Robinson, Mark S., Solomon, Sean C., Murchie, Scott L., Blewett, David T., Domingue, Deborah L., McCoy, Timothy J., Ernst, Carolyn M., Head, James W., Watters, Thomas R., Chabot, Nancy L., (2009), The Evolution of Mercury's Crust: A Global Perspective from MESSENGER, Science, 324, 613-618

Ernst, Carolyn A., Schultz, Peter H., (2007), Evolution of the Deep Impact flash: Implications for the nucleus surface based on laboratory experiments, Icarus, 190, 334-344

Schultz, Peter H., Eberhardy, Clara A., Ernst, Carolyn M., A'Hearn, Michael F., Sunshine, Jessica M., Lisse, Carey M., (2007), The Deep Impact oblique impact cratering experiment, Icarus, 190, 295-333

Schultz, P. H., Sugita, S., Eberhardy, C. A., Ernst, C. M., (2006), The role of ricochet impacts on impact vaporization, International Journal of Impact Engineering, 33, 771-780

A'Hearn, MF, Belton, MJS, Delamere, WA, Kissel, J, Klaasen, KP, McFadden, LA, Meech, KJ, Melosh, HJ, Schultz, PH, Sunshine, JM, Thomas, PC, Veverka, J, Yeomans, DK, Baca, MW, Busko, I, Crockett, CJ, Collins, SM, Desnoyer, M, Eberhardy, CA, Ernst, CM, Farnham, TL, Feaga, L, Groussin, O, Hampton, D, Ipatov, SI, Li, JY, Lindler, D, Lisse, CM, Mastrodemos, N, Owen, WM, Richardson, JE, Wellnitz, DD, White, RL, (2005), Deep Impact: Excavating comet Tempel 1, Science, 310, 258-264

Schultz, PH, Ernst, CM, Anderson, JLB, (2005), Expectations for crater size and photometric evolution from the deep impact collision, Space Science Reviews, 117, 207-239