Kan Liou Print


  240-228-3279

  Kan.Liou@jhuapl.edu

: SES

:   Space Physicist

:  Heliophysics

 
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Degree Field of Study Year Attained Institution Name
Ph.D. Physics 1994 University of New Hampshire
M.S. Atmospheric Physics 1985 National Central University, ROC

My research includes study of space weather from the ionosphere/thermosphere to interplanetary space. It includes studies of auroral morphology, substorms, ionospheric/thermospheric storms, and global ULF waves with optical image, particle, field, and GPS-TEC data; inner proton radiation belt data analysis using NOAA satellite data; and solar wind and coronal mass ejections using global numerical magnetohydrodynamics simulation.

 
AGU Index Category AGU Index Sub-Category
MAGNETOSPHERIC PHYSICS Magnetosphere/ionosphere interactions
SPACE WEATHER Models
:
Start Year End Year Description
2007 Current Principal Professional Staff, JHUAPL
1999 2007 Senior Professional Staff, JHUAPL
1996 1999 Post-Doctoral Research, JHUAPL
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The following publication information was downloaded from http://www.researcherId.com/rid/C-2089-2016.
Liou, Kan, Sotirelis, Thomas, (2016), Response of northern winter polar cap to auroral substorms, Geophysical Research Letters, 43, 4098-4105

Liou, Kan, Wu, Chin-Chun, (2016), A Possible Cause of the Diminished SolarWind During the Solar Cycle 23-24 Minimum, Solar Physics, 291, 3777-3792

Newell, P. T., Liou, K., Gjerloev, J. W., Sotirelis, T., Wing, S., Mitchell, E. J., (2016), Substorm probabilities are best predicted from solar wind speed, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 146, 28-37

Wu, Chin-Chun, Liou, Kan, Lepping, Ronald P., Hutting, Lynn, Plunkett, Simon, Howard, Russ A., Socker, Dennis, (2016), The first super geomagnetic storm of solar cycle 24: "The St. Patrick's day event (17 March 2015)", Earth Planets and Space, 68

Wu, Chin-Chun, Liou, Kan, Vourlidas, Angelos, Plunkett, Simon, Dryer, Murray, Wu, S. T., Mewaldt, Richard A., (2016), Global magnetohydrodynamic simulation of the 15 March 2013 coronal mass ejection eventInterpretation of the 30-80MeV proton flux, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 121, 56-76

Wu, Chin-Chun, Liou, Kan, Vourlidas, Angelos, Plunkett, Simon, Dryer, Murray, Wu, S. T., Socker, Dennis, Wood, Brian E., Hutting, Lynn, Howard, Russell A., (2016), Numerical simulation of multiple CME-driven shocks in the month of 2011 September, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 121, 1839-1856

Liou, Kan, Sibeck, David G., (2014), Study of a global auroral Pc5 pulsation event with concurrent ULF waves, Geophysical Research Letters, 41, 6547-6555

Liou, Kan, Wu, Chin-Chun, Dryer, Murray, Wu, Shi-Tsan, Rich, Nathan, Plunkett, Simon, Simpson, Lynn, Fry, Craig D., Schenk, Kevin, (2014), Global simulation of extremely fast coronal mass ejection on 23 July 2012, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 121, 32-41

Newell, P. T., Liou, K., Zhang, Y., Sotirelis, T., Paxton, L. J., Mitchell, E. J., (2014), OVATION Prime-2013: Extension of auroral precipitation model to higher disturbance levels, Space Weather-the International Journal of Research and Applications, 12, 368-379

Liou, K., Takahashi, K., (2013), Observations of field line resonance with global auroral images, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 105, 152-159

Liou, K., Takahashi, K., Anderson, B. J., Nose, M., Iyemori, T., (2013), Assessment of the auroral electrojet index performance under various geomagnetic conditions, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 92, 31-36

Liou, Kan, Han, Desheng, Yang, Huigen, (2013), Ionospheric Response to Solar Wind Pressure Pulses Under Northward IMF Conditions, Terrestrial Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, 24, 183-195

Liou, Kan, Newell, Patrick T., Zhang, Yong-Liang, Paxton, Larry J., (2013), Statistical comparison of isolated and non-isolated auroral substorms, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 118, 2466-2477

Liou, Kan, Wu, Chin-Chun, Dryer, Murray, Wu, Shi-Tsan, Berdichevsky, Daniel B., Plunkett, Simon, Mewaldt, Richard A., Mason, Glenn M., (2013), Magnetohydrodynamic Fast Shocks and Their Relation to Solar Energetic Particle Event Intensities, Terrestrial Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, 24, 165-173

Mitchell, E. J., Newell, P. T., Gjerloev, J. W., Liou, K., (2013), OVATION-SM: A model of auroral precipitation based on SuperMAG generalized auroral electrojet and substorm onset times, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 118, 3747-3759

Wu, Chin-Chun, Liou, Kan, Plunkett, Simon, Fry, Craig Daniel, Wu, Shi-Tsan, (2013), Investigation of Solar/Heliospheric Anomalies Associated with the Solar Minimum of 2007-2008, Terrestrial Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, 24, 243-252

Miyashita, Y., Machida, S., Nose, M., Liou, K., Saito, Y., Paterson, W. R., (2012), A statistical study of energy release and transport midway between the magnetic reconnection and initial dipolarization regions in the near-Earth magnetotail associated with substorm expansion onsets, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 117

Liou, K., Zhang, Y. -L., Newell, P. T., Paxton, L. J., Carbary, J. F., (2011), TIMED/GUVI observation of solar illumination effect on auroral energy deposition, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 116

Miyashita, Y., Kamide, Y., Liou, K., Wu, C. -C., Ieda, A., Nishitani, N., Machida, S., Saito, Y., Mukai, T., (2011), Successive substorm expansions during a period of prolonged northward interplanetary magnetic field, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 116

Newell, Patrick T., Liou, Kan, (2011), Solar wind driving and substorm triggering, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 116

Uozumi, Teiji, Yumoto, K., Tokunaga, T., Solovyev, S. I., Shevtsov, B. M., Marshall, R., Liou, K., Ohtani, S., Abe, S., Ikeda, A., Kitamura, K., Yoshikawa, A., Kawano, H., Itonaga, M., (2011), AKR modulation and global Pi2 oscillation, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 116

Wu, Chin-Chun, Dryer, Murray, Wu, S. T., Wood, Brian E., Fry, Craig D., Liou, Kan, Plunkett, Simon, (2011), Global three-dimensional simulation of the interplanetary evolution of the observed geoeffective coronal mass ejection during the epoch 1-4 August 2010, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 116

Lee, Anna R., Newell, Patrick T., Gjerloev, Jesper, Liou, Kan, (2010), Relatively low-latitude wave aurora and substorms, Geophysical Research Letters, 37

Liou, K., Newell, P. T., (2010), On the azimuthal location of auroral breakup: Hemispheric asymmetry, Geophysical Research Letters, 37

Liou, Kan, (2010), Polar Ultraviolet Imager observation of auroral breakup, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 115

Miyashita, Y., Keika, K., Liou, K., Machida, S., Kamide, Y., Miyoshi, Y., Matsumoto, Y., Shinohara, I., Saito, Y., Mukai, T., (2010), Plasma sheet changes caused by sudden enhancements of the solar wind pressure, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 115

Miyashita, Y., Machida, S., Ieda, A., Nagata, D., Kamide, Y., Nose, M., Liou, K., Mukai, T., Christon, S. P., Russell, C. T., Shinohara, I., Saito, Y., (2010), Pressure changes associated with substorm depolarization in the near-Earth plasma sheet, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 115

Morioka, A., Miyoshi, Y., Miyashita, Y., Kasaba, Y., Misawa, H., Tsuchiya, F., Kataoka, R., Kadokura, A., Mukai, T., Yumoto, K., Menietti, D. J., Parks, G., Liou, K., Honary, F., Donovan, E., (2010), Two-step evolution of auroral acceleration at substorm onset, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 115

Newell, P. T., Sotirelis, T., Liou, K., Lee, A. R., Wing, S., Green, J., Redmon, R., (2010), Predictive ability of four auroral precipitation models as evaluated using Polar UVI global images, Space Weather-the International Journal of Research and Applications, 8

Newell, Patrick T., Lee, Anna R., Liou, Kan, Ohtani, Shin-I., Sotirelis, Thomas, Wing, Simon, (2010), Substorm cycle dependence of various types of aurora, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 115

Newell, Patrick T., Lee, Anna R., Liou, Kan, Ohtani, Shin, Wing, Simon, Hairston, Marc, (2010), Multisatellite low-altitude observations of a magnetopause merging burst, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 115

Saito, M. H., Miyashita, Y., Fujimoto, M., Liou, K., Saito, Y., Sigwarth, J. B., (2010), Stepwise feature of aurora during substorm expansion compared with the near-Earth tail dipolarization: Possible types of substorm dynamics, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 115

Liou, K., Zhang, Y. -L., (2009), Comment on "Wavelet-based ULF wave diagnosis of substorm expansion phase onset" by K. Murphy et al., Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 114

Machida, S., Miyashita, Y., Ieda, A., Nose, M., Nagata, D., Liou, K., Obara, T., Nishida, A., Saito, Y., Mukai, T., (2009), Statistical visualization of the Earth's magnetotail based on Geotail data and the implied substorm model, Annales Geophysicae, 27, 1035-1046

Miyashita, Y., Machida, S., Kamide, Y., Nagata, D., Liou, K., Fujimoto, M., Ieda, A., Saito, M. H., Russell, C. T., Christon, S. P., Nose, M., Frey, H. U., Shinohara, I., Mukai, T., Saito, Y., Hayakawa, H., (2009), A state-of-the-art picture of substorm-associated evolution of the near-Earth magnetotail obtained from superposed epoch analysis, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 114

Newell, Patrick T., Liou, Kan, Wilson, Gordon R., (2009), Polar cap particle precipitation and aurora: Review and commentary, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 71, 199-215

Uozumi, Teiji, Abe, S., Kitamura, K., Tokunaga, T., Yoshikawa, A., Kawano, H., Marshall, R., Morris, R. J., Shevtsov, B. M., Solovyev, S. I., McNamara, D. J., Liou, K., Ohtani, S., Itonaga, M., Yumoto, K., (2009), Propagation characteristics of Pi 2 pulsations observed at high- and low-latitude MAGDAS/CPMN stations: A statistical study, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 114

Ieda, A., Fairfield, D. H., Slavin, J. A., Liou, K., Meng, C. -I., Machida, S., Miyashita, Y., Mukai, T., Saito, Y., Nose, M., Shue, J. -H., Parks, G. K., Fillingim, M. O., (2008), Longitudinal association between magnetotail reconnection and auroral breakup based on Geotail and Polar observations, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 113

Jayachandran, P. T., Sato, N., Ebihara, Y., Yukimatu, A. S., Kadokura, A., MacDougall, J. W., Donovan, E. F., Liou, K., (2008), Oscillations of the equatorward boundary of the ion auroral oval - radar observations, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 113

Liou, K., Takahashi, K., Newell, P. T., Yumoto, K., (2008), Polar Ultraviolet Imager observations of solar wind-driven ULF auroral pulsations, Geophysical Research Letters, 35

Newell, P. T., Sotirelis, T., Liou, K., Rich, F. J., (2008), Pairs of solar wind-magnetosphere coupling functions: Combining a merging term with a viscous term works best, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 113

Saito, M. H., Miyashita, Y., Fujimoto, M., Shinohara, I., Saito, Y., Liou, K., Mukai, T., (2008), Ballooning mode waves prior to substorm-associated dipolarizations: Geotail observations, Geophysical Research Letters, 35

Wu, Chin-Chun, Liou, K., Shan, Shao-Ju, Tseng, C. -L., (2008), Variation of ionospheric total electron content in Taiwan region of the equatorial anomaly from 1994 to 2003, Advances in Space Research, 41, 611-616

Liou, Kan, (2007), Large, abrupt pressure decreases as a substorm onset trigger, Geophysical Research Letters, 34

Liou, Kan, Newell, Patrick T., Shue, Jih-Hong, Meng, Ching-I, Miyashita, Yukinaga, Kojima, Hirotsugu, Matsumoto, Hiroshi, (2007), "Compression aurora'': Particle precipitation driven by long-duration high solar wind ram pressure, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 112

Newell, P. T., Sotirelis, T., Liou, K., Meng, C. -I., Rich, F. J., (2007), A nearly universal solar wind-magnetosphere coupling function inferred from 10 magnetospheric state variables, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 112

Wu, C. C., Fry, C. D., Dryer, M., Wu, S. T., Thompson, B., Liou, Kan, Feng, X. S., (2007), Three-dimensional global simulation of multiple ICMEs' interaction and propagation from the Sun to the heliosphere following the 25-28 October 2003 solar events, Advances in Space Research, 40, 1827-1834

Wu, Chin-Chun, Fry, C. D., Wu, S. T., Dryer, M., Liou, Kan, (2007), Three-dimensional global simulation of interplanetary coronal mass ejection propagation from the Sun to the heliosphere: Solar event of 12 May 1997, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 112

Liou, K., Newell, P. T., Sotirelis, T., Meng, C. -I., (2006), Global auroral response to negative pressure impulses, Geophysical Research Letters, 33

Liou, Kan, Meng, Ching-I, Wu, Chin-Chun, (2006), On the interplanetary magnetic field B-y control of substorm bulge expansion, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 111

Liou, K, Ruohoniemi, JM, (2006), A case study of relationship between substorm expansion and global plasma convection, Geophysical Research Letters, 33

Miyashita, Y., Kamide, Y., Miyoshi, Y., Machida, S., Liou, K., Mukai, T., Saito, Y., Meng, C. -I., Parks, G. K., (2006), Magnetotail variations associated with substorm expansion onsets for storm time and nonstorm time, Geophysical Research Letters, 33

Newell, P. T., Sotirelis, T., Liou, K., Meng, C. -I., Rich, F. J., (2006), Cusp latitude and the optimal solar wind coupling function, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 111

Nose, M, Liou, K, Sutcliffe, PR, (2006), Longitudinal dependence of characteristics of low-latitude Pi2 pulsations observed at Kakioka and Hermanus, Earth Planets and Space, 58, 775-783

Palmroth, M., Janhunen, P., Germany, G., Lummerzheim, D., Liou, K., Baker, D. N., Barth, C., Weatherwax, A. T., Watermann, J., (2006), Precipitation and total power consumption in the ionosphere: Global MHD simulation results compared with Polar and SNOE observations, Annales Geophysicae, 24, 861-872

Partamies, N., Kauristie, K., Donovan, E., Spanswick, E., Liou, K., (2006), Meso-scale aurora within the expansion phase bulge, Annales Geophysicae, 24, 2209-2218

Shue, JH, Newell, PT, Liou, K, Meng, CI, Hairston, MR, Rich, FJ, (2006), Ionospheric characteristics of the dusk-side branch of the two-cell aurora, Annales Geophysicae, 24, 203-214

Jayachandran, PT, Donovan, EF, MacDougall, JW, Moorcroft, DR, Liou, K, Newell, PT, St-Maurice, JP, (2005), Global and local equatorward expansion of the ion auroral oval before substorm onsets, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 110

Liou, K, Ruohoniemi, JM, Newell, PT, Greenwald, R, Meng, CI, Hairston, MR, (2005), Observations of ionospheric plasma flows within theta auroras, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 110

Miyashita, Y, Ieda, A, Kamide, Y, Machida, S, Mukai, T, Saito, Y, Liou, K, Meng, CI, Parks, GK, McEntire, RW, Nishitani, N, Lester, M, Sofko, GJ, Villain, JP, (2005), Plasmoids observed in the near-Earth magnetotail at X similar to-7 R-E, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 110

Takahashi, K, Liou, K, Yumoto, K, Kitamura, K, Nose, M, Honary, F, (2005), Source of Pc4 pulsations observed on the nightside, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 110

Liou, K, Newell, PT, Meng, CI, Wu, CC, Lepping, RP, (2004), On the relationship between shock-induced polar magnetic bays and solar wind parameters, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 109

Meng, CI, Liou, K, (2004), Substorm timings and timescales: A new aspect, Space Science Reviews, 113, 41-75

Miyashita, Y, Kamide, Y, Machida, S, Liou, K, Mukai, T, Saito, Y, Ieda, A, Meng, CI, Parks, GK, (2004), Difference in magnetotail variations between intense and weak substorms, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 109

Sergeev, VA, Liou, K, Newell, PT, Ohtani, SI, Hairston, MR, Rich, F, (2004), Auroral streamers: characteristics of associated precipitation, convection and field-aligned currents, Annales Geophysicae, 22, 537-548

Takahashi, K, Liou, K, (2004), Longitudinal structure of low-latitude Pi2 pulsations and its dependence on aurora, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 109

Uozumi, T, Yumoto, K, Kawano, H, Yoshikawa, A, Ohtani, S, Olson, JV, Akasofu, SI, Solovyev, SI, Vershinin, EF, Liou, K, Meng, CI, (2004), Propagation characteristics of Pi 2 magnetic pulsations observed at ground high latitudes, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 109

Wu, CC, Fry, CD, Liu, JY, Liou, K, Tseng, CL, (2004), Annual TEC variation in the equatorial anomaly region during the solar minimum: September 1996-August 1997, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 66, 199-207

Wu, CC, Liou, K, Lepping, RP, Meng, CI, (2004), Identification of substorms within storms, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 66, 125-132

Ieda, A, Shue, JH, Liou, K, Ohtani, SI, Meng, CI, Fairfield, DH, Mukai, T, Saito, Y, Machida, S, Nagai, T, Parks, GK, (2003), Quiet time magnetotail plasma flow: Coordinated Polar ultraviolet images and Geotail observations, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 108

Jayachandran, PT, MacDougall, JW, Donovan, EF, Ruohoniemi, JM, Liou, K, Moorcroft, DR, St-Maurice, JP, (2003), Substorm associated changes in the high-latitude ionospheric convection, Geophysical Research Letters, 30

Kauristie, K, Sergeev, VA, Amm, O, Kubyshkina, MV, Jussila, J, Donovan, E, Liou, K, (2003), Bursty bulk flow intrusion to the inner plasma sheet as inferred from auroral observations, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 108

Liou, K, Carbary, JF, Newell, PT, Meng, CI, Rasmussen, O, (2003), Correlation of auroral power with the polar cap index, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 108

Liou, K, Newell, PT, Meng, CI, Wu, CC, Lepping, RP, (2003), Investigation of external triggering of substorms with Polar ultraviolet imager observations, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 108

Lui, ATY, Lai, WW, Liou, K, Meng, CI, (2003), A new technique for short-term forecast of auroral activity, Geophysical Research Letters, 30

Miyashita, Y, Machida, S, Liou, K, Mukai, T, Saito, Y, Hayakawa, H, Meng, CI, Parks, GK, (2003), Evolution of the magnetotail associated with substorm auroral breakups, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 108

Miyashita, Y, Machida, S, Liou, K, Mukai, T, Saito, Y, Meng, CI, Parks, GK, (2003), Relationship between magnetotail variations and auroral activities during substorms, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 108

Shue, JH, Ohtani, S, Newell, PT, Liou, K, Meng, CI, Ieda, A, Mukai, T, (2003), Quantitative relationships between plasma sheet fast flows and nightside auroral power, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 108

Borodkova, NL, Yahnin, AG, Liou, K, Sauvaud, JA, Fedorov, AO, Lutsenko, VN, Nozdrachev, MN, Lyubchich, AA, (2002), Plasma sheet fast flows and auroral dynamics during substorm: a case study, Annales Geophysicae, 20, 341-347

Jayachandran, PT, MacDougall, JW, Moorcroft, DR, St-Maurice, JP, Liou, K, Newell, PT, (2002), Substorm onset location and the equatorward boundary of the proton auroral oval, Geophysical Research Letters, 29

Liou, K, Meng, CI, Lui, ATY, Newell, PT, Wing, S, (2002), Magnetic dipolarization with substorm expansion onset, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 107

Liou, K, Wu, CC, Lepping, RP, Newell, PT, Meng, CI, (2002), Midday sub-auroral patches (MSPs) associated with interplanetary shocks, Geophysical Research Letters, 29

Meng, CI, Liou, K, (2002), Global auroral power as an index for geospace disturbances, Geophysical Research Letters, 29

Newell, PT, Liou, K, Skura, JP, Meng, CI, (2002), The distribution of auroral power increases and decreases, Geophysical Research Letters, 29

Newell, PT, Sotirelis, T, Ruohoniemi, JM, Carbary, JF, Liou, K, Skura, JP, Meng, CI, Deehr, C, Wilkinson, D, Rich, FJ, (2002), OVATION: Oval variation, assessment, tracking, intensity, and online nowcasting, Annales Geophysicae, 20, 1039-1047

Shue, JH, Newell, PT, Liou, K, Meng, CI, (2002), Solar wind density and velocity control of auroral brightness under normal interplanetary magnetic field conditions, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 107

Shue, JH, Newell, PT, Liou, K, Meng, CI, Cowley, SWH, (2002), Interplanetary magnetic field B-x asymmetry effect on auroral brightness, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 107

Shue, JH, Newell, PT, Liou, K, Meng, CI, Kamide, Y, Lepping, RP, (2002), Two-component auroras, Geophysical Research Letters, 29

Takahashi, K, Liou, K, Yumoto, K, (2002), Correlative study of ultraviolet aurora and low-latitude Pi2 pulsations, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 107

Anderson, PC, Petrinec, SM, Liou, K, (2001), Statistical patterns in X-ray and UV auroral emissions and energetic electron precipitation, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 106, 5907-5911

Ieda, A, Fairfield, DH, Mukai, T, Saito, Y, Kokubun, S, Liou, K, Meng, CI, Parks, GK, Brittnacher, MJ, (2001), Plasmoid ejection and auroral brightenings, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 106, 3845-3857

Liou, K, Meng, CI, Newell, PT, Lui, ATY, Reeves, GD, Belian, RD, (2001), Particle injections with auroral expansions, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 106, 5873-5881

Liou, K, Newell, PT, Meng, CI, (2001), Seasonal effects on auroral particle acceleration and precipitation, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 106, 5531-5542

Liou, K, Newell, PT, Meng, CI, Takahashi, K, Ohtani, SI, Lui, ATY, Brittnacher, M, Parks, G, (2001), Comment on "Evaluation of low-latitude Pi2 pulsations as indicators of substorm onset using Polar ultraviolet imagery" by K. Liou, et al. - Reply, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 106, 18923-18926

Liou, K, Newell, PT, Sibeck, DG, Meng, CI, Brittnacher, M, Parks, G, (2001), Observation of IMF and seasonal effects in the location of auroral substorm onset, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 106, 5799-5810

Meng, CI, Liou, K, Newell, PT, (2001), Asymmetric sunlight effect on dayside/nightside auroral precipitation, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth Part C-Solar-Terrestial and Planetary Science, 26, 43-47

Nakamura, R, Baumjohann, W, Brittnacher, M, Sergeev, VA, Kubyshkina, M, Mukai, T, Liou, K, (2001), Flow bursts and auroral activations: Onset timing and foot point location, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 106, 10777-10789

Nakamura, R, Baumjohann, W, Schodel, R, Brittnacher, M, Sergeev, VA, Kubyshkina, M, Mukai, T, Liou, K, (2001), Earthward flow bursts, auroral streamers, and small expansions, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 106, 10791-10802

Newell, PT, Liou, K, Sotirelis, T, Meng, CI, (2001), Auroral precipitation power during substorms: A Polar UV Imager-based superposed epoch analysis, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 106, 28885-28896

Newell, PT, Liou, K, Sotirelis, T, Meng, CI, (2001), Polar Ultraviolet Imager observations of global auroral power as a function of polar cap size and magnetotail stretching, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 106, 5895-5905

Sergeev, VA, Kubyshkina, MV, Liou, K, Newell, PT, Parks, G, Nakamura, R, Mukai, T, (2001), Substorm and convection bay compared: Auroral and magnetotail dynamics during convection bay, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 106, 18843-18855

Shue, JH, Newell, PT, Liou, K, Meng, CI, (2001), Influence of interplanetary magnetic field on global auroral patterns, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 106, 5913-5926

Shue, JH, Newell, PT, Liou, K, Meng, CI, (2001), The quantitative relationship between auroral brightness and solar EUV Pedersen conductance, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 106, 5883-5894

Tung, YK, Carlson, CW, McFadden, JP, Klumpar, DM, Parks, GK, Peria, WJ, Liou, K, (2001), Auroral polar cap boundary ion conic outflow observed on FAST, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 106, 3603-3614

Vorobjev, VG, Yagodkina, OI, Sibeck, DG, Liou, K, Meng, CI, (2001), Polar UVI observations of dayside auroral transient events, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 106, 28897-28911

Vorobjev, VG, Yagodkina, OI, Sibeck, D, Liou, K, Meng, CI, (2001), Aurora conjugacy during substorms: Coordinated antarctic ground and polar ultraviolet observations, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 106, 24579-24591

Waters, CL, Anderson, BJ, Liou, K, (2001), Estimation of global field aligned currents using the Iridium((R)) System magnetometer data, Geophysical Research Letters, 28, 2165-2168

Aarons, J, Lin, B, Mendillo, M, Liou, K, Codrescu, M, (2000), Global Positioning System phase fluctuations and ultraviolet images from the Polar satellite, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 105, 5201-5213

Carbary, JF, Liou, K, Lui, ATY, Newell, PT, Meng, CI, (2000), "Blob" analysis of auroral substorm dynamics, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 105, 16083-16091

Liou, K, Meng, CI, Lui, ATY, Newell, PT, Anderson, RR, (2000), Auroral kilometric radiation at substorm onset, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 105, 25325-25331

Liou, K, Meng, CI, Newell, PT, Takahashi, K, Ohtani, SI, Lui, ATY, Brittnacher, M, Parks, G, (2000), Evaluation of low-latitude Pi2 pulsations as indicators of substorm onset using Polar ultraviolet imagery, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 105, 2495-2505

Lui, ATY, Chapman, SC, Liou, K, Newell, PT, Meng, CI, Brittnacher, M, Parks, GD, (2000), Is the dynamic magnetosphere an avalanching system?, Geophysical Research Letters, 27, 911-914

Lui, ATY, Liou, K, Newell, PT, Meng, CI, Ohtani, S, McEntire, RW, Fox, NJ, Lepping, RP, Paterson, WR, Sigwarth, JB, Frank, LA, Kokubun, S, Parks, GK, Moretto, T, Yumoto, K, (2000), Conjunction of tail satellites for substorm study: ISTP event of 1997 January 2, Geophysical Research Letters, 27, 1831-1834

Sergeev, VA, Sauvaud, JA, Popescu, D, Kovrazhkin, RA, Liou, K, Newell, PT, Brittnacher, M, Parks, G, Nakamura, R, Mukai, T, Reeves, GD, (2000), Multiple-spacecraft observation of a narrow transient plasma jet in the Earth's plasma sheet, Geophysical Research Letters, 27, 851-854

Tagirov, VR, Liou, K, Sibeck, DG, Arinin, VA, (2000), Study of a sequence of substorm onsets on the basis of coordinated ground-satellite observations, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth Part B-Hydrology Oceans and Atmosphere, 25, 559-563

Liou, K, Meng, CI, Lui, TY, Newell, PT, Brittnacher, M, Parks, G, Reeves, GD, Anderson, RR, Yumoto, K, (1999), On relative timing in substorm onset signatures, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 104, 22807-22817

Liou, K, Newell, PT, Meng, CI, Sotirelis, T, Brittnacher, M, Parks, G, (1999), Source region of 1500 MLT auroral bright spots: Simultaneous Polar UV-images and DMSP particle data, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 104, 24587-24602

Lui, ATY, Liou, K, Nose, M, Ohtani, S, Williams, DJ, Mukai, T, Tsuruda, K, Kokubun, S, (1999), Near-Earth dipolarization: Evidence for a non-MHD process, Geophysical Research Letters, 26, 2905-2908

Newell, PT, Liou, K, Meng, CI, Brittnacher, MJ, Parks, G, (1999), Dynamics of double-theta aurora: Polar UVI study of January 10-11, 1997, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 104, 95-104

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Lui, ATY, Brittnacher, MJ, Christon, SP, Eastman, TE, Kokubun, S, Liou, K, McEntire, RW, Meng, CI, Newell, PT, Parks, GK, Yamamoto, T, Williams, DJ, (1998), Ionospheric signature of a magnetic flux rope in the magnetotail, Geophysical Research Letters, 25, 3733-3736

Lui, ATY, Liou, K, Newell, PT, Meng, CI, Ohtani, SI, Ogino, T, Kokubun, S, Brittnacher, MJ, Parks, GK, (1998), Plasma and magnetic flux transport associated with auroral breakups, Geophysical Research Letters, 25, 4059-4062

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