Ralph Lorenz Print


  240-228-2903

  Ralph.Lorenz@jhuapl.edu

: SES

:   Planetary Scientist; Project Scientist

:  Planetary

  Cassini, RADAR, Huygens probe, Dragonfly, DraGMet, InSight, SEIS, Temperature/Wind Sensors

 
Degree Field of Study Year Attained Institution Name
B.Eng. Aerospace Systems Engineering 1990 Southampton University, UK
Ph.D. Space Sciences 1994 University of Kent, UK

My background includes broad scientific and engineering experience, especially relating to planetary science (with an emphasis on surface/atmosphere interactions on Titan, Venus and Mars), and doing science from small spacecraft and innovative sensor platforms such as probes, landers, balloons, penetrators, and boats. I have been involved in the life cycle of flight investigations including concept formulation, mission and system design, science planning, observation design, instrument development, data analysis, and publication of results. My experience includes radar remote sensing, in-situ instrumentation, geomorphology, meteorology, oceanography, vehicle dynamics and trajectory measurements, and astrobiology.   I am the Dragonfly Mission Architect. I have authored popular was well as technical publications ranging from brief articles and papers to book-length works. My field experiments focus on desert areas. My books include "Dune Worlds: How Wind-Blown Sand Shapes Planetary Landscapes" (Springer, 2014),  "Space Systems Failures" (Springer 2006),  "Titan Unveiled" (Princeton, 2008), and "Exploring Planetary Climate" (CUP, 2019).

 
AGU Index Category AGU Index Sub-Category
OCEANOGRAPHY: PHYSICAL Surface waves and tides
PLANETARY SCIENCES: SOLAR SYSTEM OBJECTS Titan
ATMOSPHERIC PROCESSES Boundary layer processes
HISTORY OF GEOPHYSICS Planetology
ELECTROMAGNETICS Instruments and techniques
PLANETARY SCIENCES: SOLAR SYSTEM OBJECTS Comparative planetology
PLANETARY SCIENCES: ASTROBIOLOGY Planetary atmospheres, clouds, and hazes
PLANETARY SCIENCES: SOLAR SYSTEM OBJECTS Mars
PLANETARY SCIENCES: SOLAR SYSTEM OBJECTS Venus
ATMOSPHERIC PROCESSES Atmospheric electricity
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Start Year End Year Description
2006 Current Principal Professional Staff, Applied Physics Lab
1994 2006 Research Faculty, Lunar and Planetary Lab, University of Arizona
1990 1991 YGT, Huygens Project, European Space Agency, ESTEC
Start Year End Year Description
2003 Current International Planetary Probe Workshop organizing committee
2007 2011 NRC Committee on the Origins and Evolution of Life (COEL)
Year Description
2007, 2008, 2009, 2009, 2015, 2018 NASA Group Achievement Awards (Cassini)
1998 NASA Group Achivement Award (Huygens)
2009, 2012, 2014, 2015 APL Publication Award
2007 AGU Sagan Lecturer
1994 Luigi Napolitano Award, International Astronautical Federation
2018 NASA Group Achievement Award, Next-Generation RTG
2019 ASLI CHOICE Award. Best Atmospheric Science book (History Category) for "Exploring Planetary Climate"
:
The following publication information was downloaded from

ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8528-4644

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Ralph D. Lorenz, (2019), How far is far enough? Requirements derivation for planetary mobility systems, Advances in Space Research , https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2019.12.011

Ralph Lorenz, (2020), MaxEP is the only 'true' steady state? , https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-2019-73-ac1

Don Banfield, Aymeric Spiga, Claire Newman, François Forget, Mark Lemmon, Ralph Lorenz, Naomi Murdoch, Daniel Viudez-Moreiras, Jorge Pla-Garcia, Raphaël F. Garcia, Philippe Lognonné, Özgür Karatekin, Clément Perrin, Léo Martire, Nicholas Teanby, Bart Van Hove, Justin N. Maki, Balthasar Kenda, Nils T. Mueller, Sébastien Rodriguez, Taichi Kawamura, John B. McClean, Alexander E. Stott, Constantinos Charalambous, Ehouarn Millour, Catherine L. Johnson, Anna Mittelholz, Anni Määttänen, Stephen R. Lewis, John Clinton, Simon C. Stähler, Savas Ceylan, Domenico Giardini, Tristram Warren, William T. Pike, Ingrid Daubar, Matthew Golombek, Lucie Rolland, Rudolf Widmer-Schnidrig, David Mimoun, Éric Beucler, Alice Jacob, Antoine Lucas, Mariah Baker, Véronique Ansan, Kenneth Hurst, Luis Mora-Sotomayor, Sara Navarro, Josefina Torres, Alain Lepinette, Antonio Molina, Mercedes Marin-Jimenez, Javier Gomez-Elvira, Veronica Peinado, Jose-Antonio Rodriguez-Manfredi, Brian T. Carcich, Stephen Sackett, Christopher T. Russell, Tilman Spohn, Suzanne E. Smrekar, W. Bruce Banerdt, (2020), The atmosphere of Mars as observed by InSight, Nature Geoscience , https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-020-0534-0

Brian Jackson, Ralph D. Lorenz, Jason W. Barnes, Michelle Szurgot, (2020), Dust Devils on Titan, Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets , 125, 3, https://doi.org/10.1029/2019je006238


Aymeric Spiga, Naomi Murdoch, Don Banfield, Ralph Lorenz, Claire Newman, Jorge Pla-Garcia, Raphael Garcia, Philippe Lognonné, Léo Martire, Sara Navarro, (2020), Daytime and nighttime turbulence on Mars monitored by InSight , https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-21327

Ralph D. Lorenz, Hiroshi Imanaka, Christopher P. McKay, Darby B. Makel, Gary W. Hunter, Melissa G. Trainer, Robert Osiander, Andrew Mastandrea, Jason W. Barnes, Elizabeth P. Turtle, (2019), Hydrogen sensing in Titan's atmosphere: Motivations and techniques, Planetary and Space Science , 174, 1--7, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pss.2019.05.010

Ralph D. Lorenz, (2019), Calculating risk and payoff in planetary exploration and life detection missions, Advances in Space Research , 64, 4, 944--956, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2019.05.026

Juan M. Lora, Tetsuya Tokano, Jan Vatant d’Ollone, Sébastien Lebonnois, Ralph D. Lorenz, (2019), A model intercomparison of Titan's climate and low-latitude environment, Icarus , 333, 113--126, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2019.05.031

Simon C. Stähler, Mark P. Panning, Céline Hadziioannou, Ralph D. Lorenz, Steve Vance, Knut Klingbeil, Sharon Kedar, (2019), Seismic signal from waves on Titan's seas, Earth and Planetary Science Letters , 520, 250--259, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2019.05.043

Ralph D. Lorenz, Masataka Imai, Yukihiro Takahashi, Mitsuteru Sato, Atsushi Yamazaki, Takao M. Sato, Takeshi Imamura, Takehiko Satoh, Masato Nakamura, (2019), Constraints on Venus Lightning From Akatsuki's First 3 Years in Orbit, Geophysical Research Letters , 46, 14, 7955--7961, https://doi.org/10.1029/2019gl083311

Ralph Lorenz, (2019), Paper has a good structure, but fails to quantify the dynamics , https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-2019-52-rc1

Ralph D. Lorenz, (2019), Yardangs and Dunes: Minimum- and Maximum-Dissipation Aeolian Landforms , https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-2019-73

Tetsuya Tokano, Ralph D. Lorenz, (2019), Modeling of Seasonal Lake Level Fluctuations of Titan's Seas/Lakes, Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets , 124, 2, 617--635, https://doi.org/10.1029/2018je005898

Jason Hartwig, Peter Meyerhofer, R. Balasubramaniam, Mariano Mercado, Ralph Lorenz, Justin Walsh, Steve Oleson, (2019), One dimensional effervescence modeling of an extraterrestrial submarine in the Saturn Titan Seas, Planetary and Space Science , https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pss.2019.04.002

Shannon M. MacKenzie, Juan M. Lora, Ralph D. Lorenz, (2019), A Thermal Inertia Map of Titan, Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets , 124, 7, 1728--1742, https://doi.org/10.1029/2019je005930

Ralph D. Lorenz, David Crisp, Lyle Huber, (2018), Venus atmospheric structure and dynamics from the VEGA lander and balloons: New results and PDS archive, Icarus , 305, 277--283, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2017.12.044

Ralph D. Lorenz, (2018), Discharge current measurements on Venera 13 & 14 textendash Evidence for charged aerosols in the Venus lower atmosphere?, Icarus , 307, 146--149, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2018.02.014

Gabriele Franzese, Francesca Esposito, Ralph Lorenz, Simone Silvestro, Ciprian Ionut Popa, Roberto Molinaro, Fabio Cozzolino, Cesare Molfese, Laurent Marty, Natalia Deniskina, (2018), Electric properties of dust devils, Earth and Planetary Science Letters , 493, 71--81, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2018.04.023

David Vincent, Özgür Karatekin, Jonathan Lambrechts, Ralph D. Lorenz, Véronique Dehant, Éric Deleersnijder, (2018), A numerical study of tides in Titan$prime$s northern seas, Kraken and Ligeia Maria, Icarus , 310, 105--126, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2017.12.018

S.P.D. Birch, A.G. Hayes, P. Corlies, E.R. Stofan, J.D. Hofgartner, R.M.C. Lopes, R.D. Lorenz, J.I. Lunine, S.M. MacKenzie, M.J. Malaska, C.A. Wood, the Cassini RADAR Team, (2018), Morphological evidence that Titan's southern hemisphere basins are paleoseas, Icarus , 310, 140--148, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2017.12.016

Ralph D. Lorenz, (2018), Lightning detection on Venus: a critical review, Progress in Earth and Planetary Science , 5, 1, https://doi.org/10.1186/s40645-018-0181-x

Ralph D. Lorenz, (2018), Atmospheric test environments for planetary in-situ missions: Never quite "leftTest as you fly"right, Advances in Space Research , 62, 7, 1884--1894, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2018.06.041

Mark P. Panning, Simon C. Stähler, Hsin-Hua Huang, Steven D. Vance, Sharon Kedar, Victor C. Tsai, William T. Pike, Ralph D. Lorenz, (2018), Expected Seismicity and the Seismic Noise Environment of Europa, Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets , 123, 1, 163--179, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017je005332

Simon C. Stähler, Mark P. Panning, Steven D. Vance, Ralph D. Lorenz, Martin van Driel, Tarje Nissen-Meyer, Sharon Kedar, (2018), Seismic Wave Propagation in Icy Ocean Worlds, Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets , 123, 1, 206--232, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017je005338

Ralph D. Lorenz, Yosio Nakamura, James R. Murphy, (2017), Viking-2 Seismometer Measurements on Mars: PDS Data Archive and Meteorological Applications, Earth and Space Science , https://doi.org/10.1002/2017ea000306

A. G. Hayes, S. P. D. Birch, W. E. Dietrich, A. D. Howard, R. L. Kirk, V. Poggiali, M. Mastrogiuseppe, R. J. Michaelides, P. M. Corlies, J. M. Moore, M. J. Malaska, K. L. Mitchell, R. D. Lorenz, C. A. Wood, (2017), Topographic Constraints on the Evolution and Connectivity of Titan's Lacustrine Basins, Geophysical Research Letters , https://doi.org/10.1002/2017gl075468

P. Corlies, A. G. Hayes, S. P. D. Birch, R. Lorenz, B. W. Stiles, R. Kirk, V. Poggiali, H. Zebker, L. Iess, (2017), Titan's Topography and Shape at the End of the Cassini Mission, Geophysical Research Letters , 44, 23, 11,754--11,761, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017gl075518

Steven D. Vance, Mark P. Panning, Simon Stähler, Fabio Cammarano, Bruce G. Bills, Gabriel Tobie, Shunichi Kamata, Sharon Kedar, Christophe Sotin, William T. Pike, Ralph Lorenz, Hsin-Hua Huang, Jennifer M. Jackson, Bruce Banerdt, (2017), Geophysical investigations of habitability in ice-covered ocean worlds, Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets

R.D. Lorenz, (2016), Europa ocean sampling by plume flythrough: Astrobiological expectations, Icarus, 267, 217-219

R.D. Lorenz, H. Svedhem, R. Trautner, W. Kofman, A. Herique, D. Plettemeier, J.-P. Lebreton, O. Witasse, P. Falkner, N. Floury, F. Ferri, (2016), Observations of the surface of Titan by the Radar Altimeters on the Huygens Probe, Icarus , 270, 248--259, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2015.11.007

Ralph D. Lorenz, (2016), Heuristic estimation of dust devil vortex parameters and trajectories from single-station meteorological observations: Application to InSight at Mars, Icarus , 271, 326--337, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2016.02.001


R.D. Lorenz, (2016), Surface winds on Venus: Probability distribution from in-situ measurements, Icarus, 264, 311-315

C. Leyrat, R.D. Lorenz, A. Le Gall, (2016), Probing Pluto's underworld: Ice temperatures from microwave radiometry decoupled from surface conditions, Icarus, 268, 50-55

R.D. Lorenz, (2015), Energy cost of acquiring and transmitting science data on deep-space missions, Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, 52, 6, 1691-1695

B. Jackson, R. Lorenz, (2015), A multiyear dust devil vortex survey using an automated search of pressure time series, Journal of Geophysical Research E: Planets, 120, 3, 1-12

L.K. Fenton, R. Lorenz, (2015), Dust devil height and spacing with relation to the martian planetary boundary layer thickness, Icarus, 260, 246-262

R.D. Lorenz, A. Le Gall, M.A. Janssen, (2015), Detecting volcanism on Titan and Venus with microwave radiometry, Icarus

D. Reiss, R.D. Lorenz, (2015), Dust devil track survey at Elysium Planitia, Mars: Implications for the InSight landing sites, Icarus

R.D. Lorenz, I. Boyd, (2015), Engineering notes: Io volcanic plumes: Spacecraft flythrough hazard evaluation, Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, 52, 3, 990-992

R.D. Lorenz, B.K. Jackson, (2015), Dust devils and dustless vortices on a desert playa observed with surface pressure and solar flux logging, GeoResJ, 5, 1-11

R.D. Lorenz, D. Christie, (2015), Dust devil signatures in infrasound records of the International Monitoring System, Geophysical Research Letters, 42, 6, 2009-2014

R.D. Lorenz, K. Hibbard, M.V. Paul, J. Walsh, D.W. Olds, S. Willits, E.B. Bierhaus, W.E. Kretsch, (2015), Instrumented splashdown testing of a scale model Titan Mare Explorer (TiME) capsule, Aeronautical Journal, 119, 1214, 409-431

R.D. Lorenz, J.L. Mann, (2015), Seakeeping on Ligeia Mare: Dynamic response of a floating capsule to waves on the hydrocarbon seas of Saturn's moon titan, Johns Hopkins APL Technical Digest (Applied Physics Laboratory), 33, 2, 82-94

R.D. Lorenz, (2015), Probabilistic constraints from existing and future radar imaging on volcanic activity on Venus, Planetary and Space Science, 117, 356-361

K.L. Mitchell, M.B. Barmatz, C.S. Jamieson, R.D. Lorenz, J.I. Lunine, (2015), Laboratory measurements of cryogenic liquid alkane microwave absorptivity and implications for the composition of Ligeia Mare, Titan, Geophysical Research Letters, 42, 5, 1340-1345

J.W. Hartwig, A. Colozza, R.D. Lorenz, S. Oleson, G. Landis, P. Schmitz, M. Paul, J. Walsh, (2015), Exploring the depths of Kraken Mare - Power, thermal analysis, and ballast control for the Saturn Titan submarine, Cryogenics

M.J. Malaska, R.M. Lopes, A.G. Hayes, J. Radebaugh, R.D. Lorenz, E.P. Turtle, (2015), Material transport map of Titan: The fate of dunes, Icarus

C.D. Neish, J.L. Molaro, J.M. Lora, A.D. Howard, R.L. Kirk, P. Schenk, V.J. Bray, R.D. Lorenz, (2015), Fluvial erosion as a mechanism for crater modification on Titan, Icarus

R.D. Lorenz, L.D. Neakrase, J.D. Anderson, (2015), In-situ measurement of dust devil activity at La Jornada Experimental Range, New Mexico, USA, Aeolian Research, 19, 183-194

R.D. Lorenz, D.J. Lawrence, (2015), Gamma rays and cosmic rays at Venus: The Pioneer Venus gamma ray detector and considerations for future measurements, Planetary and Space Science, 109-110, 1, 129-134

R.D. Lorenz, (2015), Meteorological insights from planetary heat flow measurements, Icarus, 250, 1, 262-267

B. Jackson, R. Lorenz, R. Norris, (2015), The restless rocks of Racetrack Playa, Physics World, 28, 7, 24-28

G.T. Carling, J. Radebaugh, T. Saito, R.D. Lorenz, A. Dangerfield, D.G. Tingey, J.D. Keith, J.V. South, R.M. Lopes, S. Diniega, (2015), Temperatures, thermal structure, and behavior of eruptions at Kilauea and Erta Ale volcanoes using a consumer digital camcorder, GeoResJ, 5, 47-56

Z.Y.C. Liu, J. Radebaugh, R.A. Harris, E.H. Christiansen, C.D. Neish, R.L. Kirk, R.D. Lorenz, (2015), The tectonics of Titan: Global structural mapping from Cassini RADAR, Icarus

M. Hamelin, A. Lethuillier, A. Le Gall, R. Grard, C. Béghin, K. Schwingenschuh, I. Jernej, J.-J. López-Moreno, V. Brown, R.D. Lorenz, F. Ferri, V. Ciarletti, (2015), The electrical properties of Titan's surface at the Huygens landing site measured with the PWA-HASI Mutual Impedance Probe. New approach and new findings, Icarus

R.D. Lorenz, C.E. Newman, (2015), Twilight on Ligeia: Implications of communications geometry and seasonal winds for exploring Titan's seas 2020-2040, Advances in Space Research, 56, 1, 190-204

M.A. Janssen, A. Le Gall, R.M. Lopes, R.D. Lorenz, M.J. Malaska, A.G. Hayes, C.D. Neish, A. Solomonidou, K.L. Mitchell, J. Radebaugh, S.J. Keihm, M. Choukroun, C. Leyrat, P.J. Encrenaz, M. Mastrogiuseppe, (2015), Titan's surface at 2.18-cm wavelength imaged by the Cassini RADAR radiometer: Results and interpretations through the first ten years of observation, Icarus

R.D. Lorenz, (2015), Touchdown on Venus: Analytic wind models and a heuristic approach to estimating landing dispersions, Planetary and Space Science, 108, 66-72

R.D. Lorenz, D. Reiss, (2015), Solar panel clearing events, dust devil tracks, and in-situ vortex detections on Mars, Icarus, 248, 162-164

T. Tokano, R.D. Lorenz, (2015), Sun-stirred Kraken Mare: Circulation in Titan's seas induced by solar heating and methane precipitation, Icarus

R.D. Lorenz, S. Kedar, N. Murdoch, P. Lognonné, T. Kawamura, D. Mimoun, W.B. Banerdt, (2015), Seismometer detection of dust devil vortices by ground tilt, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 105, 6, 3015-3023

R.D. Lorenz, (2015), Voyage across Ligeia Mare: Mechanics of sailing on the hydrocarbon seas of Saturn's Moon, Titan, Ocean Engineering, 104, 119-128

T. Tokano, R.D. Lorenz, (2015), Wind-driven circulation in Titan's seas, Journal of Geophysical Research E: Planets, 120, 1, 10-33

R.D. Lorenz, S.P. Scheidt, (2014), Compact and inexpensive kite apparatus for geomorphological field aerial photography, with some remarks on operations, GeoResJ, 3-4, 1, 1-8

R.D. Lorenz, N.T. Bridges, A.A. Rosenthal, E. Donkor, (2014), Elevation dependence of bedform wavelength on Tharsis Montes, Mars: Atmospheric density as a controlling parameter, Icarus, 230, 77-80

R.D. Lorenz, P.D. Lanagan, (2014), A Barometric Survey of Dust-Devil Vortices on a Desert Playa, Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 153, 3, 555-568

R.D. Lorenz, B.K. Jackson, (2014), Declining rock movement at Racetrack Playa, Death Valley National Park: An indicator of climate change?, Geomorphology, 211, 116-120

R.D. Lorenz, (2014), A simple webcam spectrograph, American Journal of Physics, 82, 2

R.D. Lorenz, K.S. Sotzen, (2014), Buoyant thermal plumes from planetary landers and rovers: Application to sizing of meteorological masts, Planetary and Space Science, 90, 81-89

R.D. Lorenz, R.L. Kirk, A.G. Hayes, Y.Z. Anderson, J.I. Lunine, T. Tokano, E.P. Turtle, M.J. Malaska, J.M. Soderblom, A. Lucas, T. Karatekin, S.D. Wall, (2014), A radar map of Titan Seas: Tidal dissipation and ocean mixing through the throat of Kraken, Icarus, 237, 9-15

R. D. Lorenz, J. M. Norris, B. K. Jackson, R. D. Norris, J. W. Chadbourne, J. Ray, (2014), Trail formation by ice-shoved "sailing stones" observed at Racetrack Playa, Death Valley National Park, Earth Surface Dynamics Discussions , 2, 2, 1005--1022, https://doi.org/10.5194/esurfd-2-1005-2014

C.J. Savage, J. Radebaugh, E.H. Christiansen, R.D. Lorenz, (2014), Implications of dune pattern analysis for Titan's surface history, Icarus, 230, 180-190

R. Lorenz, S. Oleson, R. Cataldo, P. Schmitz, A. Colozza, B. Bairstow, Y. Lee, R. Amini, (2014), MASER: A mars meteorology and seismology mini-network mission concept enabled by milliwatt-RPS, IEEE Aerospace Conference Proceedings

C.D. Neish, R.D. Lorenz, (2014), Elevation distribution of Titan's craters suggests extensive wetlands, Icarus, 228, 27-34

T. Tokano, R.D. Lorenz, T. Van Hoolst, (2014), Numerical simulation of tides and oceanic angular momentum of Titan's hydrocarbon seas, Icarus, 242, 188-201

A. Le Gall, C. Leyrat, M.A. Janssen, S. Keihm, L.C. Wye, R. West, R.D. Lorenz, F. Tosi, (2014), Iapetus' near surface thermal emission modeled and constrained using Cassini RADAR Radiometer microwave observations, Icarus, 241, 221-238

S. Rodriguez, A. Garcia, A. Lucas, T. Appéré, A. Le Gall, E. Reffet, L. Le Corre, S. Le Mouélic, T. Cornet, S. Courrech du Pont, C. Narteau, O. Bourgeois, J. Radebaugh, K. Arnold, J.W. Barnes, K. Stephan, R. Jaumann, C. Sotin, R.H. Brown, R.D. Lorenz, E.P. Turtle, (2014), Global mapping and characterization of Titan's dune fields with Cassini: Correlation between RADAR and VIMS observations, Icarus, 230, 168-179

A. Lucas, S. Rodriguez, C. Narteau, B. Charnay, S.C. Du Pont, T. Tokano, A. Garcia, M. Thiriet, A.G. Hayes, R.D. Lorenz, O. Aharonson, (2014), Growth mechanisms and dune orientation on Titan, Geophysical Research Letters, 41, 17, 6093-6100

A. Le Gall, M.A. Janssen, R.L. Kirk, R.D. Lorenz, (2014), Modeling microwave backscatter and thermal emission from linear dune fields: Application to Titan, Icarus, 230, 198-207

P. Paillou, D. Bernard, J. Radebaugh, R. Lorenz, A. Le Gall, T. Farr, (2014), Modeling the SAR backscatter of linear dunes on Earth and Titan, Icarus, 230, 208-214

R.D. Lorenz, L.A. Young, F. Ferri, (2014), Gravity waves in Titan's lower stratosphere from Huygens probe in situ temperature measurements, Icarus, 227, 49-55

R. Lorenz, (2014), Oceanography on Saturn's moon, Titan, Sea Technology, 55, 6, 29-33

M. Mastrogiuseppe, V. Poggiali, A. Hayes, R. Lorenz, J. Lunine, G. Picardi, R. Seu, E. Flamini, G. Mitri, C. Notarnicola, P. Paillou, H. Zebker, (2014), The bathymetry of a Titan sea, Geophysical Research Letters, 41, 5, 1432-1437

R. Lorenz, (2014), Rocks of ages, New Scientist, 223, 2984, 39-41

R.D. Lorenz, (2014), Physics of saltation and sand transport on Titan: A brief review, Icarus, 230, 162-167

G. Mitri, A. Coustenis, G. Fanchini, A.G. Hayes, L. Iess, K. Khurana, J.-P. Lebreton, R.M. Lopes, R.D. Lorenz, R. Meriggiola, M.L. Moriconi, R. Orosei, C. Sotin, E. Stofan, G. Tobie, T. Tokano, F. Tosi, (2014), The exploration of Titan with an orbiter and a lake probe, Planetary and Space Science

H. Zebker, A. Hayes, M. Janssen, A. Le Gall, R. Lorenz, L. Wye, (2014), Surface of Ligeia Mare, Titan, from Cassini altimeter and radiometer analysis, Geophysical Research Letters, 41, 2, 308-313

R.D. Lorenz, M.R. Leese, B. Hathi, J.C. Zarnecki, A. Hagermann, P. Rosenberg, M.C. Towner, J. Garry, H. Svedhem, (2014), Silence on Shangri-La: Attenuation of Huygens acoustic signals suggests surface volatiles, Planetary and Space Science, 90, 72-80

R.D. Norris, J.M. Norris, R.D. Lorenz, J. Ray, B. Jackson, (2014), Sliding rocks on Racetrack Playa, Death Valley National Park: First observation of rocks in motion, PLoS ONE, 9, 8

R.D. Lorenz, (2014), The flushing of Ligeia: Composition variations across Titan's seas in a simple hydrological model, Geophysical Research Letters, 41, 16, 5764-5770

J.D. Hofgartner, A.G. Hayes, J.I. Lunine, H. Zebker, B.W. Stiles, C. Sotin, J.W. Barnes, E.P. Turtle, K.H. Baines, R.H. Brown, B.J. Buratti, R.N. Clark, P. Encrenaz, R.D. Kirk, A. Le Gall, R.M. Lopes, R.D. Lorenz, M.J. Malaska, K.L. Mitchell, P.D. Nicholson, P. Paillou, J. Radebaugh, S.D. Wall, C. Wood, (2014), Transient features in a Titan sea, Nature Geoscience, 7, 7, 493-496

R.D. Lorenz, (2014), Vortex encounter rates with fixed barometer stations: Comparison with visual dust devil counts and large-eddy simulations, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 71, 12, 4461-4472

R.D. Lorenz, C.A. Nixon, (2014), Understanding the evolution of Titan's surface, interior, and atmosphere, Eos, 95, 30

R.D. Lorenz, (2013), Oceanography on Saturn's moon, Titan, OCEANS 2013 MTS/IEEE - San Diego: An Ocean in Common

R.D. Lorenz, B.W. Stiles, O. Aharonson, A. Lucas, A.G. Hayes, R.L. Kirk, H.A. Zebker, E.P. Turtle, C.D. Neish, E.R. Stofan, J.W. Barnes, (2013), A global topographic map of Titan, Icarus, 225, 1, 367-377

C.D. Neish, R.L. Kirk, R.D. Lorenz, V.J. Bray, P. Schenk, B.W. Stiles, E. Turtle, K. Mitchell, A. Hayes, (2013), Crater topography on Titan: Implications for landscape evolution, Icarus, 223, 1, 82-90

J.H. Waite, J. Bell, R. Lorenz, R. Achterberg, F.M. Flasar, (2013), A model of variability in Titan's atmospheric structure, Planetary and Space Science, 86, 45-56

R.D. Lorenz, (2013), Irregular dust devil pressure drops on Earth and Mars: Effect of cycloidal tracks, Planetary and Space Science, 76, 1, 96-103

L.K. Fenton, R.C. Ewing, N.T. Bridges, R. Lorenz, (2013), Extraterrestrial Aeolian Landscapes, Treatise on Geomorphology, 11, 287-312

J. Arvelo, R. Lorenz, (2013), Plumbing the depths of Ligeia: Considerations for depth sounding in Titan's hydrocarbon seas, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 134, 6, 4335-4350

R.D. Lorenz, N. Gasmi, J. Radebaugh, J.W. Barnes, G.G. Ori, (2013), Dunes on planet Tatooine: Observation of barchan migration at the Star Wars film set in Tunisia, Geomorphology, 201, 264-271

J.R. Zimbelman, M.C. Bourke, R.D. Lorenz, (2013), Recent developments in planetary Aeolian studies and their terrestrial analogs, Aeolian Research, 11, 109-126

A.G. Hayes, R.D. Lorenz, M.A. Donelan, M. Manga, J.I. Lunine, T. Schneider, M.P. Lamb, J.M. Mitchell, W.W. Fischer, S.D. Graves, H.L. Tolman, O. Aharonson, P.J. Encrenaz, B. Ventura, D. Casarano, C. Notarnicola, (2013), Wind driven capillary-gravity waves on Titan's lakes: Hard to detect or non-existent?, Icarus, 225, 1, 403-412

R. Lorenz, (2013), The longevity and aspect ratio of dust devils: Effects on detection efficiencies and comparison of landed and orbital imaging at Mars, Icarus, 226, 1, 964-970

E. Stofan, R. Lorenz, J. Lunine, E.B. Bierhaus, B. Clark, P.R. Mahaffy, M. Ravine, (2013), TiME-the titan mare explorer, IEEE Aerospace Conference Proceedings

R. Lorenz, (2013), Tracking desert dust devils with in-situ pressure sensors and imaging, IEEE Aerospace Conference Proceedings

Lorenz, Ralph D., (2012), Planetary seismology—Expectations for lander and wind noise with application to Venus, Planetary and Space Science, 62, 1, 86-96, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pss.2011.12.010

R.D. Lorenz, C.E. Newman, T. Tokano, J.L. Mitchell, B. Charnay, S. Lebonnois, R.K. Achterberg, (2012), Formulation of a wind specification for Titan late polar summer exploration, Planetary and Space Science, 70, 1, 73-83

S.E. Schröder, E. Karkoschka, R.D. Lorenz, (2012), Bouncing on Titan: Motion of the Huygens probe in the seconds after landing, Planetary and Space Science, 73, 1, 327-340

J.W. Barnes, L. Lemke, R. Foch, C.P. McKay, R.A. Beyer, J. Radebaugh, D.H. Atkinson, R.D. Lorenz, S. Le Mouélic, S. Rodriguez, J. Gundlach, F. Giannini, S. Bain, F.M. Flasar, T. Hurford, C.M. Anderson, J. Merrison, M. Ádámkovics, S.A. Kattenhorn, J. Mitchell, D.M. Burr, A. Colaprete, E. Schaller, A.J. Friedson, K.S. Edgett, A. Coradini, A. Adriani, K.M. Sayanagi, M.J. Malaska, D. Morabito, K. Reh, (2012), AVIATR-Aerial Vehicle for In-situ and Airborne Titan Reconnaissance, Experimental Astronomy, 33, 1, 55-127

R.D. Lorenz, (2012), Maximum entropy production - Full steam ahead, AIP Conference Proceedings, 1443, 263-269

R.D. Lorenz, (2012), Thermal drilling in planetary ices: an analytic solution with application to planetary protection problems of radioisotope power sources., Astrobiology, 12, 8, 799-802

R.D. Lorenz, A.G. Hayes, (2012), The growth of wind-waves in Titan's hydrocarbon seas, Icarus, 219, 1, 468-475

R.D. Lorenz, (2012), Power law distribution of pressure drops in dust devils: Observation techniques and EarthMars comparison, Planetary and Space Science, 60, 1, 370-375

C.A. Nixon, R.D. Lorenz, (2012), Titan through time: Formation, evolution and fate, Planetary and Space Science, 60, 1, 1-2

C.D. Neish, R.D. Lorenz, (2012), Titan's global crater population: A new assessment, Planetary and Space Science, 60, 1, 26-33

M.H. Langhans, R. Jaumann, K. Stephan, R.H. Brown, B.J. Buratti, R.N. Clark, K.H. Baines, P.D. Nicholson, R.D. Lorenz, L.A. Soderblom, J.M. Soderblom, C. Sotin, J.W. Barnes, R. Nelson, (2012), Titan's fluvial valleys: Morphology, distribution, and spectral properties, Planetary and Space Science, 60, 1, 34-51

M.R. Leese, R.D. Lorenz, B. Hathi, J.C. Zarnecki, (2012), The Huygens surface science package (SSP): Flight performance review and lessons learned, Planetary and Space Science, 70, 1, 28-45

R.D. Lorenz, T. Tokano, C.E. Newman, (2012), Winds and tides of Ligeia Mare, with application to the drift of the proposed time TiME (Titan Mare Explorer) capsule, Planetary and Space Science, 60, 1, 72-85

R.D. Lorenz, (2011), Apollo capsule capsize stability during splashdown: Application of a cavity collapse model, JBIS - Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, 64, 9-10, 289-295

R.D. Lorenz, D. Gleeson, O. Prieto-Ballesteros, F. Gomez, K. Hand, S. Bulat, (2011), Analog environments for a Europa lander mission, Advances in Space Research, 48, 4, 689-696

Lorenz, Ralph, (2011), On the statistical distribution of dust devil diameters, Icarus, 215, 1, 381-390, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2011.06.005

J. Radebaugh, R.D. Lorenz, S.D. Wall, R.L. Kirk, C.A. Wood, J.I. Lunine, E.R. Stofan, R.M.C. Lopes, P. Valora, T.G. Farr, A. Hayes, B. Stiles, G. Mitri, H. Zebker, M.. Janssen, L. Wye, A. LeGall, K.L. Mitchell, F. Paganelli, R.D. West, E.L. Schaller, (2011), Regional geomorphology and history of Titan's Xanadu province, Icarus, 211, 1, 672-685

E.P. Turtle, J.E. Perry, A.G. Hayes, R.D. Lorenz, J.W. Barnes, A.S. McEwen, R.A. West, A.D. Del Genio, J.M. Barbara, J.I. Lunine, E.L. Schaller, T.L. Ray, R.M.C. Lopes, E.R. Stofan, (2011), Rapid and extensive surface changes near Titan's equator: Evidence of April showers, Science, 331, 6023, 1414-1417

R.D. Lorenz, B.K. Jackson, J.W. Barnes, J. Spitale, J.M. Keller, (2011), Ice rafts not sails: Floating the rocks at Racetrack Playa, American Journal of Physics, 79, 1, 37-42

R.D. Lorenz, E.P. Turtle, B. Stiles, A. Le Gall, A. Hayes, O. Aharonson, C.A. Wood, E. Stofan, R. Kirk, (2011), Hypsometry of Titan, Icarus, 211, 1, 699-706

J. Singleton, T. Kremic, P. Hughes, R.B. Perry, P.M. Beauchamp, J.T. Clarke, R. Lorenz, (2011), Technology development for NASA science missions: Challenges and potential opportunities, IEEE Aerospace Conference Proceedings

A. Le Gall, M.A. Janssen, L.C. Wye, A.G. Hayes, J. Radebaugh, C. Savage, H. Zebker, R.D. Lorenz, J.I. Lunine, R.L. Kirk, R.M.C. Lopes, S. Wall, P. Callahan, E.R. Stofan, T. Farr, (2011), Cassini SAR, radiometry, scatterometry and altimetry observations of Titan's dune fields, Icarus, 213, 2, 608-624

R.D. Lorenz, (2011), Observations of wind ripple migration on an Egyptian seif dune using an inexpensive digital timelapse camera, Aeolian Research, 3, 2, 229-234

R.D. Lorenz, B.K. Jackson, J.W. Barnes, J.N. Spitale, J. Radebaugh, K.H. Baines, (2011), Meteorological conditions at Racetrack playa, death valley National Park: Implications for rock production and transport, Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 50, 12, 2361-2375

R.D. Lorenz, (2011), Planetary penetrators: Their origins, history and future, Advances in Space Research, 48, 3, 403-431

R.A. West, J. Balloch, P. Dumont, P. Lavvas, R. Lorenz, P. Rannou, T. Ray, E.P. Turtle, (2011), The evolution of Titan's detached haze layer near equinox in 2009, Geophysical Research Letters, 38, 6

A.G. Hayes, O. Aharonson, J.I. Lunine, R.L. Kirk, H.A. Zebker, L.C. Wye, R.D. Lorenz, E.P. Turtle, P. Paillou, G. Mitri, S.D. Wall, E.R. Stofan, K.L. Mitchell, C. Elachi, (2011), Transient surface liquid in Titan's polar regions from Cassini, Icarus, 211, 1, 655-671

R.D. Lorenz, A. Valdez, (2011), Variable wind ripple migration at Great Sand Dunes National Park and preserve, observed by timelapse imaging, Geomorphology, 133, 1-2, 1-10

R.D. Lorenz, (2010), A simple model for Radioisotope Power System performance in the Titan environment, JBIS - Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, 63, 1, 9-14

R.D. Lorenz, (2010), Attitude and angular rates of planetary probes during atmospheric descent: Implications for imaging, Planetary and Space Science, 58, 5, 838-846

R.D. Lorenz, P. Claudin, B. Andreotti, J. Radebaugh, T. Tokano, (2010), A 3 km atmospheric boundary layer on Titan indicated by dune spacing and Huygens data, Icarus, 205, 2, 719-721

A. Coustenis, T. Tokano, M.H. Burger, T.A. Cassidy, R.M. Lopes, R.D. Lorenz, K.D. Retherford, G. Schubert, (2010), Atmospheric/exospheric characteristics of icy satellites, Space Science Reviews, 153, 1-4, 155-184

S. Wall, A. Hayes, C. Bristow, R. Lorenz, E. Stofan, J. Lunine, A. Le Gall, M. Janssen, R. Lopes, L. Wye, L. Soderblom, P. Paillou, O. Aharonson, H. Zebker, T. Farr, G. Mitri, R. Kirk, K. Mitchell, C. Notarnicola, D. Casarano, B. Ventura, (2010), Active shoreline of Ontario Lacus, Titan: A morphological study of the lake and its surroundings, Geophysical Research Letters, 37, 5

A.G. Hayes, A.S. Wolf, O. Aharonson, H. Zebker, R. Lorenz, R.L. Kirk, P. Paillou, J. Lunine, L. Wye, P. Callahan, S. Wall, C. Elachi, (2010), Bathymetry and absorptivity of Titan's Ontario Lacus, Journal of Geophysical Research E: Planets, 115, 9

L.M. Prockter, R.M.C. Lopes, B. Giese, R. Jaumann, R.D. Lorenz, R.T. Pappalardo, G.W. Patterson, P.C. Thomas, E.P. Turtle, R.J. Wagner, (2010), Characteristics of icy surfaces, Space Science Reviews, 153, 1-4, 63-111

R.D. Lorenz, G. Dorrington, (2010), Linear theory of optimum hot air balloon performance - Application to Titan, Aeronautical Journal, 114, 1161

R. Lorenz, (2010), Comment on review, Aeronautical Journal, 114, 1161

B.W. Stiles, R.L. Kirk, R.D. Lorenz, S. Hensley, E. Lee, S.J. Ostro, M.D. Allison, P.S. Callahan, Y. Gim, L. Iess, P. Perci Del Marmo, G. Hamilton, W.T.K. Johnson, R.D. West, (2010), Erratum: Determining Titan's spin state from cassini radar images (The Astronomical Journal (2008) 135 (1669)), Astronomical Journal, 139, 1

C.A. Wood, R. Lorenz, R. Kirk, R. Lopes, K. Mitchell, E. Stofan, (2010), Impact craters on Titan, Icarus, 206, 1, 334-344

J. Radebaugh, R. Lorenz, T. Farr, P. Paillou, C. Savage, C. Spencer, (2010), Linear dunes on Titan and earth: Initial remote sensing comparisons, Geomorphology, 121, 1-2, 122-132

R.M.C. Lopes, E.R. Stofan, R. Peckyno, J. Radebaugh, K.L. Mitchell, G. Mitri, C.A. Wood, R.L. Kirk, S.D. Wall, J.I. Lunine, A. Hayes, R. Lorenz, T. Farr, L. Wye, J. Craig, R.J. Ollerenshaw, M. Janssen, A. LeGall, F. Paganelli, R. West, B. Stiles, P. Callahan, Y. Anderson, P. Valora, L. Soderblom, (2010), Distribution and interplay of geologic processes on Titan from Cassini radar data, Icarus, 205, 2, 540-558

K. Stephan, R. Jaumann, E. Karkoschka, R.L. Kirk, J.W. Barnes, M.G. Tomasko, E.P. Turtle, L.L. Corre, M. Langhans, S.L. Mouélic, R.D. Lorenz, J. Perry, (2010), Mapping products of titan's surface, Titan from Cassini-Huygens, 489-510

S.J. Ostro, R.D. West, L.C. Wye, H.A. Zebker, M.A. Janssen, B. Stiles, K. Kelleher, Y.Z. Anderson, R.A. Boehmer, P. Callahan, Y. Gim, G.A. Hamilton, W.T.K. Johnson, C. Veeramachaneni, R.D. Lorenz, (2010), New Cassini RADAR results for Saturn's icy satellites, Icarus, 206, 2, 498-506

R.D. Lorenz, B. Jackson, J.W. Barnes, (2010), Inexpensive time-lapse digital cameras for studying transient meteorological phenomena: Dust devils and playa flooding, Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 27, 1, 246-256

R. Jaumann, R.L. Kirk, R.D. Lorenz, R.M.C. Lopes, E. Stofan, E.P. Turtle, H.U. Keller, C.A. Wood, C. Sotin, L.A. Soderblom, M.G. Tomasko, (2010), Geology and surface processes on titan, Titan from Cassini-Huygens, 75-140

R. Lorenz, J. Mitton, (2010), Titan unveiled: Saturn's mysterious moon explored, Titan Unveiled: Saturn's Mysterious Moon Explored, 1-265

A. Le Gall, M.A. Janssen, P. Paillou, R.D. Lorenz, S.D. Wall, (2010), Radar-bright channels on Titan, Icarus, 207, 2, 948-958

R.D. Lorenz, B. Jackson, A. Hayes, (2010), Racetrack and Bonnie Claire: southwestern US playa lakes as analogs for Ontario Lacus, Titan, Planetary and Space Science, 58, 4, 724-731

R.D. Lorenz, (2010), Studies of desert dust devils with a sensor network, timelapse cameras and thermal imaging, IEEE Aerospace Conference Proceedings

C.D. Neish, R.D. Lorenz, R.L. Kirk, L.C. Wye, (2010), Radarclinometry of the sand seas of Africa's Namibia and Saturn's moon Titan, Icarus, 208, 1, 385-394

R. Lorenz, C. Sotin, (2010), The moon that would be a planet, Scientific American, 302, 3, 36-43

R.D. Lorenz, M.E. Brown, F.M. Flasar, (2010), Seasonal change on titan, Titan from Cassini-Huygens, 353-372

M.K. Dougherty, A. Coustenis, R.D. Lorenz, (2010), Titan beyond cassini-huygens, Titan from Cassini-Huygens, 479-488

R.D. Lorenz, C. Newman, J.I. Lunine, (2010), Threshold of wave generation on Titan's lakes and seas: Effect of viscosity and implications for Cassini observations, Icarus, 207, 2, 932-937

K.R. Atkinson, J.C. Zarnecki, M.C. Towner, T.J. Ringrose, A. Hagermann, A.J. Ball, M.R. Leese, G. Kargl, M.D. Paton, R.D. Lorenz, S.F. Green, (2010), Penetrometry of granular and moist planetary surface materials: Application to the Huygens landing site on Titan, Icarus, 210, 2, 843-851

S.K. Atreya, R.D. Lorenz, J.H. Waite, (2010), Volatile origin and cycles: Nitrogen and methane, Titan from Cassini-Huygens, 177-199

R.D. Lorenz, (2010), Winds of change on Titan, Science, 329, 5991, 519-520

H.A. Zebker, Y. Gim, P. Callahan, S. Hensley, R. Lorenz, (2009), Analysis and interpretation of Cassini Titan radar altimeter echoes, Icarus, 200, 1, 240-255

R.D. Lorenz, J. Radebaugh, (2009), Global pattern of Titan's dunes: Radar survey from the Cassini prime mission, Geophysical Research Letters, 36, 3

R.D. West, Y. Anderson, R. Boehmer, L. Borgarelli, P. Callahan, C. Elachi, Y. Gim, G. Hamilton, S. Hensley, M.A. Janssen, W.T.K. Johnson, K. Kelleher, R. Lorenz, S. Ostro, L. Roth, S. Shaffer, B. Stiles, S. Wall, L.C. Wye, H.A. Zebker, (2009), Cassini RADAR sequence planning and instrument performance, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 47, 6, 1777-1795

S.D. Wall, R.M. Lopes, E.R. Stofan, C.A. Wood, J.L. Radebaugh, S.M. Hörst, B.W. Stiles, R.M. Nelson, L.W. Kamp, M.A. Janssen, R.D. Lorenz, J.I. Limine, T.G. Fair, G. Mitri, P. Paillou, F. Paganelli, K.L. Mitchell, (2009), Cassini RADAR images at hotei arcus and western Xanadu, Titan: Evidence for geologically recent cryovolcanic activity, Geophysical Research Letters, 36, 4

A. Coustenis, J. Lunine, J.-P. Lebreton, D. Matson, C. Erd, K. Reh, P. Beauchamp, R. Lorenz, H. Waite, C. Sotin, L. Gurvits, M. Hirtzig, (2009), Earth-Based support for the titan saturn system mission, Earth, Moon and Planets, 105, 2-4, 135-142

B.W. Stiles, S. Hensley, Y. Gim, D.M. Bates, R.L. Kirk, A. Hayes, J. Radebaugh, R.D. Lorenz, K.L. Mitchell, P.S. Callahan, H. Zebker, W.T.K. Johnson, S.D. Wall, J.I. Lunine, C.A. Wood, M. Janssen, F. Pelletier, R.D. West, C. Veeramacheneni, (2009), Determining Titan surface topography from Cassini SAR data, Icarus, 202, 2, 584-598

O. Aharonson, A.G. Hayes, J.I. Lunine, R.D. Lorenz, M.D. Allison, C. Elachi, (2009), An asymmetric distribution of lakes on Titan as a possible consequence of orbital forcing, Nature Geoscience, 2, 12, 851-854

R.D. Lorenz, (2009), Power law of dust devil diameters on Mars and Earth, Icarus, 203, 2, 683-684

R.D. Lorenz, (2009), Titan mission studies - A historical review, JBIS - Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, 62, 5, 162-174

M.A. Janssen, R.D. Lorenz, R. West, F. Paganelli, R.M. Lopes, R.L. Kirk, C. Elachi, S.D. Wall, W.T.K. Johnson, Y. Anderson, R.A. Boehmer, P. Callahan, Y. Gim, G.A. Hamilton, K.D. Kelleher, L. Roth, B. Stiles, A. Le Gall, (2009), Titan's surface at 2.2-cm wavelength imaged by the Cassini RADAR radiometer: Calibration and first results, Icarus, 200, 1, 222-239

J.I. Lunine, R.D. Lorenz, (2009), Rivers, lakes, dunes, and rain: Crustal processes in titan's methane cycle, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 37, 299-320

H.A. Zebker, B. Stiles, S. Hensley, R. Lorenz, R.L. Kirk, J. Lunine, (2009), Size and shape of saturn's moon titan, Science, 324, 5929, 921-923

L.C. Wye, H.A. Zebker, R.D. Lorenz, (2009), Smoothness of Titan's Ontario Lacus: Constraints from Cassini RADAR specular reflection data, Geophysical Research Letters, 36, 16

A. Coustenis, S.K. Atreya, T. Balint, R.H. Brown, M.K. Dougherty, F. Ferri, M. Fulchignoni, D. Gautier, R.A. Gowen, C.A. Griffith, L.I. Gurvits, R. Jaumann, Y. Langevin, M.R. Leese, J.I. Lunine, C.P. McKay, X. Moussas, I. Müller-Wodarg, F. Neubauer, T.C. Owen, F. Raulin, E.C. Sittler, F. Sohl, C. Sotin, G. Tobie, T. Tokano, E.P. Turtle, J.-E. Wahlund, J.H. Waite, K.H. Baines, J. Blamont, A.J. Coates, I. Dandouras, T. Krimigis, E. Lellouch, R.D. Lorenz, A. Morse, C.C. Porco, M. Hirtzig, J. Saur, T. Spilker, J.C. Zarnecki, E. Choi, N. Achilleos, R. Amils, P. Annan, D.H. Atkinson, Y. Bénilan, C. Bertucci, B. Bézard, G.L. Bjoraker, M. Blanc, L. Boireau, J. Bouman, M. Cabane, M.T. Capria, E. Chassefière, P. Coll, M. Combes, J.F. Cooper, A. Coradini, F. Crary, T. Cravens, I.A. Daglis, E. de Angelis, C. de Bergh, I. de Pater, C. Dunford, G. Durry, O. Dutuit, D. Fairbrother, F.M. Flasar, A.D. Fortes, R. Frampton, M. Fujimoto, M. Galand, O. Grasset, M. Grott, T. Haltigin, A. Herique, F. Hersant, H. Hussmann, W. Ip, R. Johnson, E. Kallio, S. Kempf, M. Knapmeyer, W. Kofman, R. Koop, T. Kostiuk, N. Krupp, M. Küppers, H. Lammer, L.-M. Lara, P. Lavvas, S. Le Mouélic, S. Lebonnois, S. Ledvina, J. Li, T.A. Livengood, R.M. Lopes, J.-J. Lopez-Moreno, D. Luz, P.R. Mahaffy, U. Mall, J. Martinez-Frias, B. Marty, T. McCord, C.M. Salvan, A. Milillo, D.G. Mitchell, R. Modolo, O. Mousis, M. Nakamura, C.D. Neish, C.A. Nixon, D.N. Mvondo, G. Orton, M. Paetzold, J. Pitman, S. Pogrebenko, W. Pollard, O. Prieto-Ballesteros, P. Rannou, K. Reh, L. Richter, F.T. Robb, R. Rodrigo, S. Rodriguez, P. Romani, M.R. Bermejo, E.T. Sarris, P. Schenk, B. Schmitt, N. Schmitz, D. Schulze-Makuch, K. Schwingenschuh, A. Selig, B. Sicardy, L. Soderblom, L.J. Spilker, D. Stam, A. Steele, K. Stephan, D.F. Strobel, K. Szego, C. Szopa, R. Thissen, M.G. Tomasko, D. Toublanc, H. Vali, I. Vardavas, V. Vuitton, R.A. West, R. Yelle, E.F. Young, (2009), TandEM: Titan and Enceladus mission, Experimental Astronomy, 23, 3, 893-946

H.A. Zebker, S. Hensley, B. Stiles, P. Callahan, Y. Gim, R. Lorenz, (2009), The shape of saturn's moon titan from cassini radar altimeter and SAR monopulse observations, IEEE National Radar Conference - Proceedings

R.D. Lorenz, (2008), A review of balloon concepts for Titan, JBIS - Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, 61, 1, 2-13

J. Adabi, F. Zare, G. Ledwich, A. Ghosh, R. D.Lorenz, (2008), Bearing damage analysis by calculation of capacitive coupling between inner and outer races of a ball bearing, 2008 13th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference, EPE-PEMC 2008, 903-907

R.D. Lorenz, (2008), Atmospheric electricity hazards, Space Science Reviews, 137, 1-4, 287-294

Paillou, Philippe and Lunine, Jonathan and Ruffié, Gilles and Encrenaz, Pierre and Wall, Stephen and Lorenz, Ralph and Janssen, Michael, (2008), Microwave dielectric constant of Titan-relevant materials, Geophysical Research Letters, 35, 18, http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2008GL035216

R.D. Lorenz, (2008), Linear theory of optimum hot air balloon performance - Application to Titan, Aeronautical Journal, 112, 1132, 353-355

R.D. Lorenz, R.D. West, W.T.K. Johnson, (2008), Cassini RADAR constraint on Titan's winter polar precipitation, Icarus, 195, 2, 812-816

B. Hathi, A.J. Ball, M. Banaszkiewicz, P.M. Daniell, J.R.C. Garry, A. Hagermann, M.R. Leese, R.D. Lorenz, P.D. Rosenberg, M.C. Towner, J.C. Zarnecki, (2008), In situ thermal conductivity measurements of Titan's lower atmosphere, Icarus, 197, 2, 579-584

R.D. Lorenz, R.M. Lopes, F. Paganelli, J.I. Lunine, R.L. Kirk, K.L. Mitchell, L.A. Soderblom, E.R. Stofan, G. Ori, M. Myers, H. Miyamoto, J. Radebaugh, B. Stiles, S.D. Wall, C.A. Wood, (2008), Fluvial channels on Titan: Initial Cassini RADAR observations, Planetary and Space Science, 56, 8, 1132-1144

B.W. Stiles, R.L. Kirk, R.D. Lorenz, S. Hensley, E. Lee, S.J. Ostro, M.D. Allison, P.S. Callahan, Y. Gim, L. Iess, P.P. Del Marmo, G. Hamilton, W.T.K. Johnson, R.D. West, (2008), Determining titan's spin state from cassini radar images, Astronomical Journal, 135, 5, 1669-1680

R. Jaumann, R.H. Brown, K. Stephan, J.W. Barnes, L.A. Soderblom, C. Sotin, S. Le Mouélic, R.N. Clark, J. Soderblom, B.J. Buratti, R. Wagner, T.B. McCord, S. Rodriguez, K.H. Baines, D.P. Cruikshank, P.D. Nicholson, C.A. Griffith, M. Langhans, R.D. Lorenz, (2008), Fluvial erosion and post-erosional processes on Titan, Icarus, 197, 2, 526-538

J. Radebaugh, R.D. Lorenz, J.I. Lunine, S.D. Wall, G. Boubin, E. Reffet, R.L. Kirk, R.M. Lopes, E.R. Stofan, L. Soderblom, M. Allison, M. Janssen, P. Paillou, P. Callahan, C. Spencer, the Cassini Radar Team, (2008), Dunes on Titan observed by Cassini Radar, Icarus, 194, 2, 690-703

R.D. Lorenz, (2008), Electrical effects on atmospheric chemistry, Space Science Reviews, 137, 1-4, 295-299

A. Hayes, O. Aharonson, P. Callahan, C. Elachi, Y. Gim, R. Kirk, K. Lewis, R. Lopes, R. Lorenz, J. Lunine, K. Mitchell, G. Mitri, E. Stofan, S. Wall, (2008), Hydrocarbon lakes on Titan: Distribution and interaction with a porous regolith, Geophysical Research Letters, 35, 9

Lorenz, Ralph D., (2008), The changing face of Titan, Physics Today, 61, 8, 34, http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2970210

R.D. Lorenz, (2008), Titan bumblebee: A 1 kg lander-launched UAV concept, JBIS - Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, 61, 4, 118-124

M.K. Lockwood, J.C. Leary, R. Lorenz, H. Waite, K. Reh, J. Prince, R. Powell, (2008), Titan Explorer, AIAA/AAS Astrodynamics Specialist Conference and Exhibit

J.I. Lunine, C. Elachi, S.D. Wall, M.A. Janssen, M.D. Allison, Y. Anderson, R. Boehmer, P. Callahan, P. Encrenaz, E. Flamini, G. Franceschetti, Y. Gim, G. Hamilton, S. Hensley, W.T.K. Johnson, K. Kelleher, R.L. Kirk, R.M. Lopes, R. Lorenz, D.O. Muhleman, R. Orosei, S.J. Ostro, F. Paganelli, P. Paillou, G. Picardi, F. Posa, J. Radebaugh, L.E. Roth, R. Seu, S. Shaffer, L.A. Soderblom, B. Stiles, E.R. Stofan, S. Vetrella, R. West, C.A. Wood, L. Wye, H. Zebker, G. Alberti, E. Karkoschka, B. Rizk, E. McFarlane, C. See, B. Kazeminejad, (2008), Titan's diverse landscapes as evidenced by Cassini RADAR's third and fourth looks at Titan, Icarus, 195, 1, 415-433

P. Paillou, K. Mitchell, S. Wall, G. Ruffié, C. Wood, R. Lorenz, E. Stofan, J. Lunine, R. Lopes, P. Encrenaz, (2008), Microwave dielectric constant of liquid hydrocarbons: Application to the depth estimation of Titan's lakes, Geophysical Research Letters, 35, 5

T.R. Spilker, K.R. Reh, J.O. Elliott, R. Lorenz, J. Spencer, (2008), The "Billion Dollar Box" study of science missions to Saturnian satellites, IEEE Aerospace Conference Proceedings

R.D. Lorenz, J.C. Leary, M.K. Lockwood, J.H. Waite, (2008), Titan explorer: A NASA Flagship mission concept, AIP Conference Proceedings, 969, 380-387

R.D. Lorenz, K.L. Mitchell, R.L. Kirk, A.G. Hayes, O. Aharonson, H.A. Zebker, P. Paillou, J. Radebaugh, J.I. Lunine, M.A. Janssen, S.D. Wall, R.M. Lopes, B. Stiles, S. Ostro, G. Mitri, E.R. Stofan, (2008), Titan's inventory of organic surface materials, Geophysical Research Letters, 35, 2

C.D. Neish, R.D. Lorenz, R.L. Kirk, (2008), Radar topography of domes on planetary surfaces, Icarus, 196, 2, 552-564

R.D. Lorenz, B.W. Stiles, R.L. Kirk, M.D. Allison, P.P. Del Marmo, L. Iess, J.I. Lunine, S.J. Ostro, S. Hensley, (2008), Titan's rotation reveals an internal ocean and changing zonal winds, Science, 319, 5870, 1649-1651

F. Paganelli, M.A. Janssen, R.M. Lopes, E. Stofan, S.D. Wall, R.D. Lorenz, J.I. Lunine, R.L. Kirk, L. Roth, C. Elachi, (2008), Titan's surface from the Cassini RADAR radiometry data during SAR mode, Planetary and Space Science, 56, 1, 100-108

R.D. Lorenz, (2008), Titan's surface inventory of organic materials estimated from Cassini RADAR observations, Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union, 4, S251, 329-330

R.M.C. Lopes, K.L. Mitchell, E.R. Stofan, J.I. Lunine, R. Lorenz, F. Paganelli, R.L. Kirk, C.A. Wood, S.D. Wall, L.E. Robshaw, A.D. Fortes, C.D. Neish, J. Radebaugh, E. Reffet, S.J. Ostro, C. Elachi, M.D. Allison, Y. Anderson, R. Boehmer, G. Boubin, P. Callahan, P. Encrenaz, E. Flamini, G. Francescetti, Y. Gim, G. Hamilton, S. Hensley, M.A. Janssen, W.T.K. Johnson, K. Kelleher, D.O. Muhleman, G. Ori, R. Orosei, G. Picardi, F. Posa, L.E. Roth, R. Seu, S. Shaffer, L.A. Soderblom, B. Stiles, S. Vetrella, R.D. West, L. Wye, H.A. Zebker, (2007), Cryovolcanic features on Titan's surface as revealed by the Cassini Titan Radar Mapper, Icarus, 186, 2, 395-412

G. Mitri, A.P. Showman, J.I. Lunine, R.D. Lorenz, (2007), Hydrocarbon lakes on Titan, Icarus, 186, 2, 385-394

L.A. Soderblom, R.L. Kirk, J.I. Lunine, J.A. Anderson, K.H. Baines, J.W. Barnes, J.M. Barrett, R.H. Brown, B.J. Buratti, R.N. Clark, D.P. Cruikshank, C. Elachi, M.A. Janssen, R. Jaumann, E. Karkoschka, S.L. Mouélic, R.M. Lopes, R.D. Lorenz, T.B. McCord, P.D. Nicholson, J. Radebaugh, B. Rizk, C. Sotin, E.R. Stofan, T.L. Sucharski, M.G. Tomasko, S.D. Wall, (2007), Correlations between Cassini VIMS spectra and RADAR SAR images: Implications for Titan's surface composition and the character of the Huygens Probe Landing Site, Planetary and Space Science, 55, 13, 2025-2036

R.D. Lorenz, (2007), Comments on "In situ atmospheric turbulence measurement using the terrestrial magnetic field - A compass for a radiosonde", Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 24, 8, 1519-1520

R.D. Lorenz, J.C. Zarnecki, M.C. Towner, M.R. Leese, A.J. Ball, B. Hathi, A. Hagermann, N.A.L. Ghafoor, (2007), Descent motions of the Huygens probe as measured by the Surface Science Package (SSP): Turbulent evidence for a cloud layer, Planetary and Space Science, 55, 13, 1936-1948

L.C. Wye, H.A. Zebker, S.J. Ostro, R.D. West, Y. Gim, R.D. Lorenz, the Cassini RADAR Team, (2007), Electrical properties of Titan's surface from Cassini RADAR scatterometer measurements, Icarus, 188, 2, 367-385

J.W. Barnes, J. Radebaugh, R.H. Brown, S. Wall, L. Soderblom, J. Lunine, D. Burr, C. Sotin, S. Le Mouélic, S. Rodriguez, B.J. Buratti, R. Clark, K.H. Baines, R. Jaumann, P.D. Nicholson, R.L. Kirk, R. Lopes, R.D. Lorenz, K. Mitchell, C.A. Wood, (2007), Near-infrared spectral mapping of Titan's mountains and channels, Journal of Geophysical Research E: Planets, 112, 11

J. Radebaugh, R.D. Lorenz, R.L. Kirk, J.I. Lunine, E.R. Stofan, R.M.C. Lopes, S.D. Wall, (2007), Mountains on Titan observed by Cassini Radar, Icarus, 192, 1, 77-91

Ball, Andrew and Garry, James and Lorenz, Ralph and Kerzhanovich, Viktor, (2007), Planetary Landers and Entry Probes, http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511536052

R.M.C. Lopes, K.L. Mitchell, S.D. Wall, G. Mitri, M. Janssen, S. Ostro, R.L. Kirk, A.G. Hayes, E.R. Stofan, J.I. Lunine, R.D. Lorenz, C. Wood, J. Radebaugh, P. Paillou, H. Zebker, F. Paganelli, (2007), The lakes and seas of Titan, Eos, 88, 51

F. Paganelli, M.A. Janssen, B. Stiles, R. West, R.D. Lorenz, J.I. Lunine, S.D. Wall, P. Callahan, R.M. Lopes, E. Stofan, R.L. Kirk, W.T.K. Johnson, L. Roth, C. Elachi, the Radar Team, (2007), Titan's surface from Cassini RADAR SAR and high resolution radiometry data of the first five flybys, Icarus, 191, 1, 211-222

R.D. Lorenz, (2007), Titan atmosphere profiles from Huygens engineering (temperature and acceleration) sensors, Planetary and Space Science, 55, 13, 1949-1958

R.D. Lorenz, C.A. Wood, J.I. Lunine, S.D. Wall, R.M. Lopes, K.L. Mitchell, F. Paganelli, Y.Z. Anderson, L. Wye, C. Tsai, H. Zebker, E.R. Stofan, (2007), Titan's young surface: Initial impact crater survey by Cassini RADAR and model comparison, Geophysical Research Letters, 34, 7

A. Hagermann, P.D. Rosenberg, M.C. Towner, J.R.C. Garry, H. Svedhem, M.R. Leese, B. Hathi, R.D. Lorenz, J.C. Zarnecki, (2007), Speed of sound measurements and the methane abundance in Titan's atmosphere, Icarus, 189, 2, 538-543

E.R. Stofan, C. Elachi, J.I. Lunine, R.D. Lorenz, B. Stiles, K.L. Mitchell, S. Ostro, L. Soderblom, C. Wood, H. Zebker, S. Wall, M. Janssen, R. Kirk, R. Lopes, F. Paganelli, J. Radebaugh, L. Wye, Y. Anderson, M. Allison, R. Boehmer, P. Callahan, P. Encrenaz, E. Flamini, G. Francescetti, Y. Gim, G. Hamilton, S. Hensley, W.T.K. Johnson, K. Kelleher, D. Muhleman, P. Paillou, G. Picardi, F. Posa, L. Roth, R. Seu, S. Shaffer, S. Vetrella, R. West, (2007), The lakes of Titan, Nature, 445, 7123, 61-64

S.J. Ostro, R.D. West, M.A. Janssen, R.D. Lorenz, H.A. Zebker, G.J. Black, J.I. Lunine, L.C. Wye, R.M. Lopes, S.D. Wall, C. Elachi, L. Roth, S. Hensley, K. Kelleher, G.A. Hamilton, Y. Gim, Y.Z. Anderson, R.A. Boehmer, W.T.K. Johnson, (2006), Cassini RADAR observations of Enceladus, Tethys, Dione, Rhea, Iapetus, Hyperion, and Phoebe, Icarus, 183, 2, 479-490

M. Pérez-Ayúcar, R.D. Lorenz, N. Floury, R. Prieto-Cerdeira, J.-P. Lebreton, (2006), Bistatic observations of Titan's surface with the Huygens probe radio signal, Journal of Geophysical Research E: Planets, 111, 7

R.D. Lorenz, W.V. Boynton, C. Turner, (2006), Demonstration of comet sample collection by penetrator, Acta Astronautica, 59, 8-11, 1000-1007

R. Lorenz, (2006), Ringing in the changes, New Scientist, 189, 2534, 30-32

R.D. Lorenz, O. Witasse, J.-P. Lebreton, T. Blancquaert, I. de Pater, F. Mazoue, H. Roe, M.T. Lemmon, B.J. Burratti, S. Holmes, K. Noll, (2006), Huygens entry emission: Observation campaign, results, and lessons learned, Journal of Geophysical Research E: Planets, 111, 7

A. Hagermann, A.J. Ball, B. Hathi, M.R. Leese, R.D. Lorenz, P.D. Rosenberg, M.C. Towner, J.C. Zarnecki, (2006), Inferring the composition of the liquid surface on Titan at the Huygens probe landing site from Surface Science Package measurements, Advances in Space Research, 38, 4, 794-798

R. Lorenz, (2006), Finite-time thermodynamics of an instrumented drinking bird toy, American Journal of Physics, 74, 8, 677-682

E.R. Kraal, E. Asphaug, J.M. Moore, R.D. Lorenz, (2006), Quantitative geomorphic modeling of Martian bedrock shorelines, Journal of Geophysical Research E: Planets, 111, 3

E.R. Stofan, J.I. Lunine, R. Lopes, F. Paganelli, R.D. Lorenz, C.A. Wood, R. Kirk, S. Wall, C. Elachi, L.A. Soderblom, S. Ostro, M. Janssen, J. Radebaugh, L. Wye, H. Zebker, Y. Anderson, M. Allison, R. Boehmer, P. Callahan, P. Encrenaz, E. Flamini, G. Francescetti, Y. Gim, G. Hamilton, S. Hensley, W.T.K. Johnson, K. Kelleher, D. Muhleman, G. Picardi, F. Posa, L. Roth, R. Seu, S. Shaffer, B. Stiles, S. Vetrella, R. West, (2006), Mapping of Titan: Results from the first Titan radar passes, Icarus, 185, 2, 443-456

M.C. Towner, J.R.C. Garry, R.D. Lorenz, A. Hagermann, B. Hathi, H. Svedhem, B.C. Clark, M.R. Leese, J.C. Zarnecki, (2006), Physical properties of Titan's surface at the Huygens landing site from the Surface Science Package Acoustic Properties sensor (API-S), Icarus, 185, 2, 457-465

C. Elachi, S. Wall, M. Janssen, E. Stofan, R. Lopes, R. Kirk, R. Lorenz, J. Lunine, F. Paganelli, L. Soderblom, C. Wood, L. Wye, H. Zebker, Y. Anderson, S. Ostro, M. Allison, R. Boehmer, P. Callahan, P. Encrenaz, E. Flamini, G. Francescetti, Y. Gim, G. Hamilton, S. Hensley, W. Johnson, K. Kelleher, D. Muhleman, G. Picardi, F. Posa, L. Roth, R. Seu, S. Shaffer, B. Stiles, S. Vetrella, R. West, (2006), Erratum: Titan Radar Mapper observations from Cassini's T3 fly-by (Nature (2006) 441 (709-713)), Nature, 442, 7102

O. Witasse, J.-P. Lebreton, M.K. Bird, R. Dutta-Roy, W.M. Folkner, R.A. Preston, S.W. Asmar, L.I. Gurvits, S.V. Pogrebenko, I.M. Avruch, R.M. Campbell, H.E. Bignall, M.A. Garrett, H.J. van Langevelde, S.M. Parsley, C. Reynolds, A. Szomoru, J.E. Reynolds, C.J. Phillips, R.J. Sault, A.K. Tzioumis, F. Ghigo, G. Langston, W. Brisken, J.D. Romney, A. Mujunen, J. Ritakari, S.J. Tingay, R.G. Dodson, C.G.M. van't Klooster, T. Blancquaert, A. Coustenis, E. Gendron, B. Sicardy, M. Hirtzig, D. Luz, A. Negrao, T. Kostiuk, T.A. Livengood, M. Hartung, I. de Pater, M. Ádámkovics, R.D. Lorenz, H. Roe, E. Schaller, M. Brown, A.H. Bouchez, C.A. Trujillo, B.J. Buratti, L. Caillaut, T. Magin, A. Bourdon, C. Laux, (2006), Overview of the coordinated ground-based observations of Titan during the Huygens mission, Journal of Geophysical Research E: Planets, 111, 7

T. Tokano, R.D. Lorenz, (2006), GCM simulation of balloon trajectories on Titan, Planetary and Space Science, 54, 7, 685-694

R.D. Lorenz, (2006), The exploration of titan, Johns Hopkins APL Technical Digest (Applied Physics Laboratory), 27, 2, 133-144

R.D. Lorenz, (2006), Spin of planetary probes in atmospheric flight, JBIS - Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, 59, 8, 273-282

R.D. Lorenz, S. Wall, J. Radebaugh, G. Boubin, E. Reffet, M. Janssen, E. Stofan, R. Lopes, R. Kirk, C. Elachi, J. Lunine, K. Mitchell, F. Paganelli, L. Soderblom, C. Wood, L. Wye, H. Zebker, Y. Anderson, S. Ostro, M. Allison, R. Boehmer, P. Callahan, P. Encrenaz, G.G. Ori, G. Francescetti, Y. Gim, G. Hamilton, S. Hensley, W. Johnson, K. Kelleher, D. Muhleman, G. Picardi, F. Posa, L. Roth, R. Seu, S. Shaffer, B. Stiles, S. Vetrella, E. Flamini, R. West, (2006), The sand seas of titan: Cassini RADAR observations of longitudinal dunes, Science, 312, 5774, 724-727

D.M. Burr, J.P. Emery, R.D. Lorenz, G.C. Collins, P.A. Carling, (2006), Sediment transport by liquid surficial flow: Application to Titan, Icarus, 181, 1, 235-242

C. Elachi, S. Wall, M. Janssen, E. Stofan, R. Lopes, R. Kirk, R. Lorenz, J. Lunine, F. Paganelli, L. Soderblom, C. Wood, L. Wye, H. Zebker, Y. Anderson, S. Ostro, M. Allison, R. Boehmer, P. Callahan, P. Encrenaz, E. Flamini, G. Francescetti, Y. Gim, G. Hamilton, S. Hensley, W. Johnson, K. Kelleher, D. Muhleman, G. Picardi, F. Posa, L. Roth, R. Seu, S. Shaffer, B. Stiles, S. Vetrella, R. West, (2006), Titan Radar Mapper observations from Cassini's T3 fly-by, Nature, 441, 7094, 709-713

R.D. Lorenz, (2006), Spinning flight: Dynamics of frisbees, boomerangs, samaras, and skipping stones, Spinning Flight: Dynamics of Frisbees, Boomerangs, Samaras, and Skipping Stones, 1-346

R.D. Lorenz, M.T. Lemmon, P.H. Smith, (2006), Seasonal evolution of Titan's dark polar hood: Midsummer disappearance observed by the Hubble Space Telescope, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 369, 4, 1683-1687

S. Chien, R. Doyle, A.G. Davies, A. Jónsson, R. Lorenz, (2006), The future of ai in space, IEEE Intelligent Systems, 21, 4, 64-69

C.D. Neish, R.D. Lorenz, D.P. O'Brien, (2006), The potential for prebiotic chemistry in the possible cryovolcanic dome Ganesa Macula on Titan, International Journal of Astrobiology, 5, 1, 57-65

R.D. Lorenz, (2006), Thermal interactions of the Huygens probe with the Titan environment: Constraint on near-surface wind, Icarus, 182, 2, 559-566

R.D. Lorenz, H.B. Niemann, D.N. Harpold, S.H. Way, J.C. Zarnecki, (2006), Titan's damp ground: Constraints on Titan surface thermal properties from the temperature evolution of the Huygens GCMS inlet, Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 41, 11, 1705-1714

R.D. Lorenz, (2006), What Titan is really like: In-situ measurements of the Titan environment by the Huygens probe, IEEE Aerospace Conference Proceedings, 2006

R.D. Lorenz, C.A. Griffith, J.I. Lunine, C.P. McKay, N.O. Rennò, (2005), Convective plumes and the scarcity of Titan's clouds, Geophysical Research Letters, 32, 1, 1-4

R.D. Lorenz, (2005), Flight and attitude dynamics measurements of an instrumented Frisbee, Measurement Science and Technology, 16, 3, 738-748

A. Seiff, C.R. Stoker, R.E. Young, J.D. Mihalov, C.P. McKay, R.D. Lorenz, (2005), Determination of physical properties of a planetary surface by measuring the deceleration of a probe upon impact: Application to Titan, Planetary and Space Science, 53, 5, 594-600

J.C. Zarnecki, M.R. Leese, B. Hathi, A.J. Ball, A. Hagermann, M.C. Towner, R.D. Lorenz, J.A.M. McDonnell, S.F. Green, M.R. Patel, T.J. Ringrose, P.D. Rosenberg, K.R. Atkinson, M.D. Paton, M. Banaszkiewicz, B.C. Clark, F. Ferri, M. Fulchignoni, N.A.L. Ghafoor, G. Kargl, H. Svedhem, J. Delderfield, M. Grande, D.J. Parker, P.G. Challenor, J.E. Geake, (2005), A soft solid surface on Titan as revealed by the Huygens Surface Science Package, Nature, 438, 7069, 792-795

R.D. Lorenz, (2005), Miniature testbeds for planetary exploration vehicles: Tumbleweed and frisbee, IEEE Aerospace Conference Proceedings, 2005

H. Miyamoto, J. Haruyama, T. Kobayashi, K. Suzuki, T. Okada, T. Nishibori, A.P. Showman, R. Lorenz, K. Mogi, D.A. Crown, J.A.P. Rodriguez, S. Rokugawa, T. Tokunaga, K. Masumoto, (2005), Mapping the structure and depth of lava tubes using ground penetrating radar, Geophysical Research Letters, 32, 21, 1-5

C. Elachi, S. Wall, M. Allison, Y. Anderson, R. Boehmer, P. Callahan, P. Encrenaz, E. Flamini, G. Franceschetti, Y. Gim, G. Hamilton, S. Hensley, M. Janssen, W. Johnson, K. Kelleher, R. Kirk, R. Lopes, R. Lorenz, J. Lunine, D. Muhleman, S. Ostro, F. Paganelli, G. Picardi, F. Posa, L. Roth, R. Seu, S. Shaffer, L. Soderblom, B. Stiles, E. Stofan, S. Vetrella, R. West, C. Wood, L. Wye, H. Zebker, (2005), Cassini radar views the surface of Titan, Science, 308, 5724, 970-974

W. Zimmerman, J. Lunine, R. Lorenz, (2005), A post-huygens titan surface science mission design, IEEE Aerospace Conference Proceedings, 2005

(2005), Understanding Complex Systems, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/b12042

R.D. Lorenz, J.I. Lunine, W. Zimmerman, (2005), Post-Cassini exploration of Titan: Science goals, instrumentation and mission concepts, Advances in Space Research, 36, 2, 281-285

C. Elachi, M.D. Allison, L. Borgarelli, P. Encrenaz, E. Im, M.A. Janssen, W.T.K. Johnson, R.L. Kirk, R.D. Lorenz, J.I. Lunine, D.O. Muhleman, S.J. Ostro, G. Picardi, F. Posa, C.G. Rapley, L.E. Roth, R. Seu, L.A. Soderblom, S. Vetrella, S.D. Wall, C.A. Wood, H.A. Zebker, (2005), Radar: The Cassini Titan RADAR mapper, Space Science Reviews, 115, 1-4, 71-110

D.P. O'Brien, R.D. Lorenz, J.I. Lunine, (2005), Numerical calculations of the longevity of impact oases on Titan, Icarus, 173, 1, 243-253

R.D. Lorenz, E.R. Kraal, E.E. Eddlemon, J. Cheney, R. Greeley, (2005), Sea-surface wave growth under extraterrestrial atmospheres: Preliminary wind tunnel experiments with application to Mars and Titan, Icarus, 175, 2, 556-560

R.D. Lorenz, J.I. Lunine, (2005), Titan's surface before Cassini, Planetary and Space Science, 53, 5, 557-576

A. Hagermann, J.C. Zarnecki, M.C. Towner, P.D. Rosenberg, R.D. Lorenz, M.R. Leese, B. Hathi, A.J. Ball, (2005), Physical properties as indicators of liquid compositions: Derivation of the composition for Titan's surface liquids from the Huygens SSP measurements, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 359, 2, 637-642

J.W. Barnes, R.H. Brown, E.P. Turtle, A.S. McEwen, R.D. Lorenz, M. Janssen, E.L. Schaller, M.E. Brown, B.J. Buratti, C. Sotin, C. Griffith, R. Clark, J. Perry, S. Fussner, J. Barbara, R. West, C. Elachi, A.H. Bouchez, H.G. Roe, K.H. Baines, G. Bellucci, J.-P. Bibring, F. Capaccioni, P. Cerroni, M. Combes, A. Coradini, D.P. Cruikshank, P. Drossart, V. Formisano, R. Jaumann, Y. Langevin, D.L. Matson, T.B. McCord, P.D. Nicholson, B. Sicardy, (2005), Planetary science: A 5-micron-bright spot on Titan: Evidence for surface diversity, Science, 310, 5745, 92-95

R.D. Lorenz, (2004), "Comet-tail" ejecta streaks: A predicted cratering landform unique to Titan, Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 39, 4, 617-623

J. Dooley, R.D. Lorenz, (2004), A miniature parachute-probe dynamics test-bed, European Space Agency, (Special Publication) ESA SP, 544, 267-274

R. Lorenz, (2004), Flying saucers, New Scientist, 182, 2452, 40-41

A. Cuerva, A. Sanz-Andrés, R.D. Lorenz, (2004), Sonic anemometry of planetary atmospheres, European Space Agency, (Special Publication) ESA SP, 544, 295-302

R.D. Lorenz, (2004), Splashdown and post-impact dynamics of the huygens probe: Model studies, European Space Agency, (Special Publication) ESA SP, 544, 117-123

R.D. Lorenz, (2004), Planetary probe entry and descent instrumentation - A review, European Space Agency, (Special Publication) ESA SP, 544, 49-56

R.D. Lorenz, C. Hergenrother, B. White, J.D. West, M. Fujii, J. Hatten, (2004), Observing Titan with amateur equipment, European Space Agency, (Special Publication) ESA SP, 1278, 291-300

R.D. Lorenz, J.N. Spitale, (2004), The Yarkovsky effect as a heat engine, Icarus, 170, 1, 229-233

R.D. Lorenz, (2004), Atmospheres as engines: Heat, work and entropy, Journal De Physique. IV : JP, 121, 105-114

A.A. Pankine, K.M. Aaron, M.K. Heun, K.T. Nock, R.S. Schlaifer, C.J. Wyszkowski, A.P. Ingersoll, R.D. Lorenz, (2004), Directed aerial robot explorers for planetary exploration, Advances in Space Research, 33, 10, 1825-1830

R.D. Lorenz, P.H. Smith, M.T. Lemmon, (2004), Seasonal change in Titan's haze 1992-2002 from Hubble Space Telescope observations, Geophysical Research Letters, 31, 10

N.G. Phillips, R.D. Lorenz, (2004), Earth's entropy [3] (multiple letters), Science, 306, 5702, 1681-1683

R.D. Lorenz, (2004), Thermal imaging of a desert dust devil, Journal of Meteorology, 29, 292, 275-276

J. Richardson, R.D. Lorenz, A. McEwen, (2004), Titan's surface and rotation: New results from Voyager 1 images, Icarus, 170, 1, 113-124

H.J. Melosh, A.G. Ekholm, A.P. Showman, R.D. Lorenz, (2004), The temperature of Europa's subsurface water ocean, Icarus, 168, 2, 498-502

F. Sohl, H. Hussmann, B. Schwentker, T. Spohn, R.D. Lorenz, (2003), Interior structure models and tidal Love numbers of Titan, Journal of Geophysical Research E: Planets, 108, 12, 4-1

R.D. Lorenz, W.V. Boynton, C. Turner, (2003), Demonstration of comet sample collection by penetrator, European Space Agency, (Special Publication) ESA SP, 542, 387-393

P. Rannou, C.P. McKay, R.D. Lorenz, (2003), A model of Titan's haze of fractal aerosols constrained by multiple observations, Planetary and Space Science, 51, 14-15, 963-976

R.D. Lorenz, J.M. Dooley, J.D. West, M. Fujii, (2003), Backyard spectroscopy and photometry of Titan, Uranus and Neptune, Planetary and Space Science, 51, 2, 113-125

R.D. Lorenz, G. Biolluz, P. Encrenaz, M.A. Janssen, R.D. West, D.O. Muhleman, (2003), Cassini RADAR: Prospects for Titan surface investigations using the microwave radiometer, Planetary and Space Science, 51, 4-5, 353-364

R. Lorenz, (2003), Computational mathematics: Full steam ahead-probably, Science, 299, 5608, 837-838

R.D. Lorenz, C. McKay, (2003), A simple expression for vertical convective fluxes in planetary atmosphere, Icarus, 165, 2, 407-413

H. Ozawa, A. Ohmura, R.D. Lorenz, T. Pujol, (2003), The second law of thermodynamics and the global climate system: A review of the maximum entropy production principle, Reviews of Geophysics, 41, 4

R.D. Lorenz, E. Kraal, E. Asphaug, R.E. Thomson, (2003), The seas of titan, Eos, 84, 14

R.D. Lorenz, J.A. Jones, J.J. Wu, (2003), Mars magnetometry from a tumbleweed rover, IEEE Aerospace Conference Proceedings, 2, 597-602

R.D. Lorenz, (2003), Subsurface ambient thermoelectric power for moles and penetrators, IEEE Aerospace Conference Proceedings, 2, 637-642

R. Lorenz, (2003), The Glitter of Distant Seas, Science, 302, 5644, 403-404

R.D. Lorenz, (2002), Navigation of aerial platforms on Titan, Advances in the Astronautical Sciences, 112 I, 563-573

R.D. Lorenz, (2002), An artificial meteor on Titan?, Astronomy and Geophysics, 43, 5, 14-17

M.T. Lemmon, P.H. Smith, R.D. Lorenz, (2002), Methane abundance on Titan, measured by the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph, Icarus, 160, 2, 375-385

R.D. Lorenz, (2002), Maximum frictional dissipation and the information entropy of windspeeds, Journal of Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics, 27, 3, 229-238

P. Withers, R.D. Lorenz, G.A. Neumann, (2002), Comparison of viking lander descent data and MOLA topography reveals kilometer-scale offset in Mars atmosphere profiles, Icarus, 159, 1, 259-261

R. Lorenz, (2002), Titan's atmosphere - A review, Journal De Physique. IV : JP, 12, 10

A. Ellery, A. Ball, C. Cockell, P. Coste, D. Dickensheets, H. Edwards, H. Hu, C. Kolb, H. Lammer, R. Lorenz, G. McKee, L. Richter, A. Winfield, C. Welch, (2002), Robotic astrobiology - The need for sub-surface penetration of Mars, European Space Agency, (Special Publication) ESA SP, 518, 313-317

T. Tokano, F.M. Neubauer, R.D. Lorenz, (2002), Tidal winds on Titan: Measurement goals and mobility opportunities for future missions, European Space Agency, (Special Publication) ESA SP, 518, 353-355

R.D. Lorenz, N.O. Rennó, (2002), Work output of planetary atmospheric engines: Dissipation in clouds and rain, Geophysical Research Letters, 29, 2

R.D. Lorenz, A.J.T. Jull, T.D. Swindle, J.I. Lunine, (2002), Radiocarbon on Titan, Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 37, 6, 867-874

R.D. Lorenz, J.I. Lunine, (2002), Titan's snowline, Icarus, 158, 2, 557-559

R.D. Lorenz, (2002), Thermodynamics of geysers: Application to Titan, Icarus, 156, 1, 176-183

R.D. Lorenz, S.E. Shandera, (2002), Target effects during penetrator emplacement: Heating, triboelectric charging, and mechanical disruption, Planetary and Space Science, 50, 2, 163-179

J.L. Hall, V.V. Kerzhanovich, J.A. Jones, J.A. Cutts, A.A. Yavrouian, A. Colozza, R.D. Lorenz, (2002), Titan airship explorer, IEEE Aerospace Conference Proceedings, 1, 327-336

R.D. Lorenz, C. Elachi, R.D. West, W.T.K. Johnson, M.A. Janssen, M. Moghaddam, G.A. Hamilton, O. Liepack, A. Bunker, L.E. Roth, S.D. Wall, L. Dente, D. Casarano, F. Posa, (2001), Cassini Radio Detection and Ranging (RADAR): Earth and Venus observations, Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 106, A12, 30271-30279

R.D. Lorenz, J.I. Lunine, C.P. McKay, (2001), Geologic settings for aqueous organic synthesis on Titan revisited, Enantiomer, 6, 2-3, 83-96

R. Lorenz, (2001), Mars attracts! A chain of microscopic magnets has revived hopes for Martian life, some say. But other experts will have none of it. Ralph Lorenz watched the two sides battle it out, New Scientist, 170, 2291, 38-40

R. Lorenz, (2001), Driven to extremes, New Scientist, 2311, 41-42

R.D. Lorenz, (2001), Flight power scaling of airplanes, airships, and helicopters: Application to planetary exploration, Journal of Aircraft, 38, 2, 208-214

W.V. Boynton, S.H. Bailey, D.K. Hamara, M.S. Williams, R.C. Bode, M.R. Fitzgibbon, W. Ko, M.G. Ward, K.R. Sridhar, J.A. Blanchard, R.D. Lorenz, R.D. May, D.A. Paige, A.V. Pathare, D.A. Kring, L.A. Leshin, D.W. Ming, A.P. Zent, D.C. Golden, K.E. Kerry, H.V. Lauer Jr., R.C. Quinn, (2001), Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer: Part of the Mars Volatile and Climate Surveyor integrated payload, Journal of Geophysical Research E: Planets, 106, E8, 17683-17698

R.D. Lorenz, S.E. Shandera, (2001), Physical properties of ammonian-rich ice: Application to Titan, Geophysical Research Letters, 28, 2, 215-218

R.D. Lorenz, (2001), Post-Cassini exploration of Titan, European Space Agency, (Special Publication) ESA SP, 496, 215-218

C.P. McKay, A. Coustenis, R.E. Samuelson, M.T. Lemmon, R.D. Lorenz, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, P. Drossart, (2001), Physical properties of the organic aerosols and clouds on Titan, Planetary and Space Science, 49, 1, 79-99

R.D. Lorenz, E.F. Young, M.T. Lemmon, (2001), Titan's smile and collar: HST observations of seasonal change 1994-2000, Geophysical Research Letters, 28, 23, 4453-4456

R.D. Lorenz, (2001), Correction to "Titan, Mars and Earth: Entropy production by latitudinal heat transport", Geophysical Research Letters, 28, 16

Lorenz, Ralph D. and Lunine, Jonathan I. and Withers, Paul G. and McKay, Christopher P., (2001), Titan, Mars and Earth/: Entropy production by latitudinal heat transport, Geophysical Research Letters, 28, 3, 415-418, http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2000GL012336

R.D. Lorenz, J.E. Moersch, J.A. Stone, A.R. Morgan Jr., S.E. Smrekar, (2000), Penetration tests on the DS-2 Mars microprobes: Penetration depth and impact accelerometry, Planetary and Space Science, 48, 5, 419-436

R.D. Lorenz, (2000), Optimizing science return from titan aerial explorers, IEEE Aerospace Conference Proceedings, 7, 493-499

R.D. Lorenz, (2000), Post-cassini exploration of Titan: Science rationale and mission concepts, JBIS - Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, 53, 7-8, 218-234

R.D. Lorenz, (2000), Microtektites on Mars: Volume and Texture of Distal Impact Ejecta Deposits, Icarus, 144, 2, 353-366

R.D. Lorenz, S.E. Shandera, (2000), Penetrator launch diagnostics from breech pressure measurements during operation of an air cannon, Measurement Science and Technology, 11, 12, 1819-1823

J.B. Johnson, R.D. Lorenz, (2000), Thermophysical properties of Alaskan loess: An analog material for the Martian polar layered terrain?, Geophysical Research Letters, 27, 17, 2769-2772

D. Casarano, L. Dente, F. Posa, R.L. Kirk, R.D. Lorenz, S.D. Wall, R.D. West, (2000), Cassini Radar: Data analysis of the Earth flyby and simulation of Titan flybys' data, Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, 4173, 29-42

R.D. Lorenz, (2000), The weather on Titan, Science, 290, 5491, 467-468

R.D. Lorenz, W. Zeitschel, (1999), An intact item of space debris with an Exposure age of about 10 years, JBIS - Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, 52, 11-12, 439-442

J.I. Lunine, Y.L. Yung, R.D. Lorenz, (1999), On the volatile inventory of Titan from isotopic abundances in nitrogen and methane, Planetary and Space Science, 47, 10-11, 1291-1303

S. Smrekar, D. Catling, R. Lorenz, J. Magalhães, J. Moersch, P. Morgan, B. Murray, M. Presley, A. Yen, A. Zent, D. Blaney, (1999), Deep space 2: The Mars Microprobe Mission, Journal of Geophysical Research E: Planets, 104, E11, 27013-27030

R.D. Lorenz, C.P. McKay, J.I. Lunine, (1999), Analytic investigation of climate stability on Titan: sensitivity to volatile inventory., Planetary and Space Science, 47, 12, 1503-1515

R.D. Lorenz, (1999), Calorimetric radar absorptivity measurement using a microwave oven, Measurement Science and Technology, 10, 6

R.D. Lorenz, M.T. Lemmon, P.H. Smith, G.W. Lockwood, (1999), Seasonal Change on Titan Observed with the Hubble Space Telescope WFPC-2, Icarus, 142, 2, 391-401

C.P. McKay, R.D. Lorenz, J.I. Lunine, (1999), Analytic Solutions for the Antigreenhouse Effect: Titan and the Early Earth, Icarus, 137, 1, 56-61

(1998), Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, 35, 4, 579-582, http://dx.doi.org/10.2514/2.3372

R.D. Lorenz, (1998), Microtektite dispersal from subcritical impact events on earth impact fluluence on spacecraft, JBIS - Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, 51, 12, 471-476

Ralph D. Lorenz, (1998), Design considerations for Venus microprobes, Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, 35, 2, 228-230

R.D. Lorenz, (1998), Preliminary Measurements of the Cryogenic Dielectric Properties of Water-Ammonia Ices: Implications for Radar Observations of Icy Satellites, Icarus, 136, 2, 344-348

J.I. Lunine, R.D. Lorenz, W.K. Hartmann, (1998), Some speculations on Titan's past, present and future, Planetary and Space Science, 46, 9-10, 1099-1107

R.D. Lorenz, (1998), Speed of sound in outer planet atmospheres, Planetary and Space Science, 47, 1-2, 67-77

R.D. Lorenz, (1998), Solar array degradation by dust impacts during cometary encounters, Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, 35, 4, 579-582

R.D. Lorenz, J.I. Lunine, C.P. McKay, (1997), Titan under a red giant sun: A new kind of "habitable" moon, Geophysical Research Letters, 24, 22, 2905-2908

R.D. Lorenz, P.H. Smith, M.T. Lemmon, E. Karkoschka, G.W. Lockwood, J. Caldwell, (1997), Titan's north-south asymmetry from HST and Voyager imaging: Comparison with models and ground-based photometry, Icarus, 127, 1, 173-189

R.D. Lorenz, (1997), Did Comas Sol`a discover Titan's atmosphere?, Astronomy and Geophysics, 38, 3, 16-22

R.D. Lorenz, (1997), Impacts and cratering on Titan: A pre-Cassini view, Planetary and Space Science, 45, 8, 1009-1019

R.D. Lorenz, J.I. Lunine, (1997), Titan's surface reviewed: The nature of bright and dark terrain, Planetary and Space Science, 45, 8, 981-992

E. Karkoschka, R.D. Lorenz, (1997), Latitudinal variation of aerosol sizes inferred from Titan's shadow, Icarus, 125, 2, 369-379

R.D. Lorenz, C.P. McKay, J.I. Lunine, (1997), Photochemically driven collapse of Titan's atmosphere, Science, 275, 5300, 642-644

Lorenz, Ralph D., (1996), Martian surface wind speeds described by the Weibull distribution, Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, 33, 5, 754-756, http://dx.doi.org/10.2514/3.26833

Ralph D. Lorenz, (1996), Martian surface wind speeds described by the Weibull distribution, Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, 33, 5, 754-756

Jonathan I. Lunine, Ralph D. Lorenz, (1996), Surface of Titan revealed by Cassini/Huygens, Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, 2803, 45-54

R. Lorenz, (1996), Sixty ways to tour Saturn, New Scientist, 152, 2060, 34-36

R.D. Lorenz, J.I. Lunine, (1996), Erosion on Titan: Past and present, Icarus, 122, 1, 79-91

M.A. English, L.M. Lara, R.D. Lorenz, P.R. Ratcliff, R. Rodrigo, (1996), Ablation and chemistry of meteoric materials in the atmosphere of Titan, Advances in Space Research, 17, 12, 157-160

R.D. Lorenz, (1996), Pillow lava on Titan: Expectations and constraints on cryovolcanic processes, Planetary and Space Science, 44, 9, 1021-1028

P.H. Smith, M.T. Lemmon, R.D. Lorenz, L.A. Sromovsky, J.J. Caldwell, M.D. Allison, (1996), Titan's surface, revealed by HST imaging, Icarus, 119, 2, 336-349

K.J. Kossacki, R.D. Lorenz, (1996), Hiding Titan's ocean: Densification and hydrocarbon storage in an icy regolith, Planetary and Space Science, 44, 9, 1029-1037

R.D. Lorenz, J.I. Lunine, J.A. Grier, M.A. Fisher, (1995), Prediction of aeolian features on planets: application to Titan paleoclimatology, Journal of Geophysical Research, 100, E12

R.D. Lorenz, (1995), Raindrops on Titan, Advances in Space Research, 15, 3, 317-320

F. Sohl, W.D. Sears, R.D. Lorenz, (1995), Tidal Dissipation on Titan, Icarus, 115, 2, 278-294

L.M. Lara, R.D. Lorenz, R. Rodrigo, (1994), Liquids and solids on the surface of Titan: results of a new photochemical model, Planetary and Space Science, 42, 1, 5-14

R.D. Lorenz, (1994), Crater lakes on Titan: rings, horseshoes and bullseyes, Planetary and Space Science, 42, 1, 1-4

R.D. Lorenz, M. Bannister, P.M. Daniell, Z. Krysinski, M.R. Leese, R.J. Miller, G. Newton, P. Rabbetts, D.M. Willett, J.C. Zarnecki, (1994), Impact penetrometer for a landing spacecraft, Measurement Science and Technology, 5, 9, 1033-1041

R.D. Lorenz, (1993), The surface of Titan in the context of ESA's Huygens Probe, ESA Journal, 17, 4, 275-292

R.D. Lorenz, (1993), The life, death and afterlife of a raindrop on Titan, Planetary and Space Science, 41, 9, 647-655

R.D. Lorenz, (1993), Wake-Induced Dust Cloud Formation Following Impact of Planetary Landers, Icarus, 101, 1, 165-167

R.D. Lorenz, (1989), Aerodynamic attitude stabilization for a small, low-orbiting, manoeuvrable satellite, Acta Astronautica, 19, 6-7, 573-576