Andrew Rivkin Print



:   Planetary Astronomer

:  Planetary


Degree Field of Study Year Attained Institution Name
SB Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences 1991 Massachusetts Institute of Technology
PhD Planetary Sciences 1997 University of Arizona

I received my Ph.D. in Planetary Astronomy from the University of Arizona in 1997. At the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, my research centers around near-infrared spectroscopy and spectrophotometry of asteroids. In particular, I'm interested in those asteroids that have evidence of water or organic materials in them, detectable in their infrared reflectance spectrum. This pursuit has led to studies of asteroids from 1996 FG3, a near-Earth asteroid on which clay minerals has been found, to 24 Themis, an asteroid in the outer belt on which his team found water ice -- a first for asteroids. I have particular interest in the dwarf planet Ceres, producing several papers in the past few years detailing its unusual composition and variation across its surface, as well a focus paper for the Planetary Science Decadal Survey. In addition to observational work, I have been active in the broader near-Earth object community, serving as a team member in several efforts to understand and report the impact hazard we face and how to lessen it, and leading a group reporting to NASA about the most important unknown factors related to human exploration of an asteroid.

AGU Index Category AGU Index Sub-Category
Start Year End Year Description
1997 2000 Postdoctoral Researcher, University of Arizona
2000 2005 Research Scientist, MIT
2005 Current Senior Staff, APL
Start Year End Year Description
2011 Current Treasurer, AAS Division of Planetary Sciences
2010 2010 Chair, SBAG Strategic Knowledge Gap Special Action Team
No items
The following publication information was downloaded from
A.F. Cheng, J. Atchison, B. Kantsiper, A.S. Rivkin, A. Stickle, C. Reed, A. Galvez, I. Carnelli, P. Michel, S. Ulamec, (2015), Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment mission, Acta Astronautica, 115, 262

A.M. Stickle, J.A. Atchison, O.S. Barnouin, A.F. Cheng, D.A. Crawford, C.M. Ernst, Z. Fletcher, A.S. Rivkin, (2015), Modeling Momentum Transfer from Kinetic Impacts: Implications for Redirecting Asteroids, Procedia Engineering, 103, 577

Michael K. Shepard, Patrick A. Taylor, Michael C. Nolan, Ellen S. Howell, Alessondra Springmann, Jon D. Giorgini, Brian D. Warner, Alan W. Harris, Robert Stephens, William J. Merline, Andrew Rivkin, Lance A.M. Benner, Dan Coley, Beth Ellen Clark, Maureen Ockert-Bell, Christopher Magri, (2015), A radar survey of M- and X-class asteroids. {III}. Insights into their composition, hydration state, {\&} structure, Icarus, 245, 38

Andrew S. Rivkin, Erik Asphaug, William F. Bottke, (2014), The case of the missing Ceres family, Icarus, 243, 429

Fraeman, A.A., Murchie, S.L., Arvidson, R.E., Clark, R.N., Morris, R.V., Rivkin, A.S., Vilas, F., (2014), Spectral absorptions on Phobos and Deimos in the visible/near infrared wavelengths and their compositional constraints, Icarus, 229, 196-205

Baines, K.H., Yanamandra-Fisher, P.A., Momary, T.W., Orton, G.S., Villar III, G.G., Fletcher, L.N., Campins, H., Rivkin, A.S., Shara, M., (2013), The temporal evolution of the July 2009 Jupiter impact cloud, Planetary and Space Science, 77, 25-39,

J. M. Trigo-Rodriguez, C. E. Moyano-Cambero, J. Llorca, S. Fornasier, M. A. Barucci, I. Belskaya, Z. Martins, A. S. Rivkin, E. Dotto, J. M. Madiedo, A.-A. Jacinto, (2013), {UV} to far-{IR} reflectance spectra of carbonaceous chondrites - I. Implications for remote characterization of dark primitive asteroids targeted by sample-return missions, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 437, 227

Rivkin, A.S., Howell, E.S., Vervack, R.J., Magri, C., Nolan, M.C., Fernandez, Y.R., Cheng, A.F., Antonietta Barucci, M., Michel, P., (2013), The NEO (175706) 1996 FG3 in the 2-4μm spectral region: Evidence for an aqueously altered surface, Icarus, 223, 493-498,

Rivkin, Andrew S., Howell, Ellen S., Vervack, Ronald J., Magri, Chris, Nolan, Michael C., Fernandez, Yan R., Cheng, Andrew F., Antonietta Barucci, M., Michel, Patrick, (2013), The NEO (175706) 1996 FG3 in the 2–4μm spectral region: Evidence for an aqueously altered surface, Icarus, 223, 493-498

Barucci, M.A., Cheng, A.F., Michel, P., Benner, L.A.M., Binzel, R.P., Bland, P.A., Böhnhardt, H., Brucato, J.R., Bagatin, A.C., Cerroni, P., Dotto, E., Fitzsimmons, A., Franchi, I.A., Green, S.F., Lara, L.-M., Licandro, J., Marty, B., Muinonen, K., Nathues, A., Oberst, J., Rivkin, A.S., Robert, F., Saladino, R., Trigo-Rodriguez, J.M., Ulamec, S., Zolensky, M., (2012), MarcoPolo-R near earth asteroid sample return mission, Experimental Astronomy, 33, 645-684,

Fraeman, A.A., Arvidson, R.E., Murchie, S.L., Rivkin, A., Bibring, J.-P., Choo, T.H., Gondet, B., Humm, D., Kuzmin, R.O., Manaud, N., Zabalueva, E.V., (2012), Analysis of disk-resolved OMEGA and CRISM spectral observations of Phobos and Deimos, Journal of Geophysical Research E: Planets, 117,

Licandro, J., Hargrove, K., Kelley, M., Campins, H., Ziffer, J., Alí-Lagoa, V., Fernández, Y., Rivkin, A., (2012), 5-14 μm Spitzer spectra of Themis family asteroids, Astronomy and Astrophysics, 537,

Murchie, S.L., Chabot, N.L., Rivkin, A.S., Yen, A.S., Maki, J.N., Trebi-Ollennu, A., Arvidson, R.E., Wang, A., Gellert, R., Daly, M., Reed, C.L., (2012), Merlin: Mars-moon exploration, reconnaissance and landed investigation, Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC, 2, 1396-1405,

Rivkin, A.S., (2012), The fraction of hydrated C-complex asteroids in the asteroid belt from SDSS data, Icarus, 221, 744-752,

Thomas, C.A., Trilling, D.E., Rivkin, A.S., (2012), Space weathering of small Koronis family asteroids in the SDSS Moving Object Catalog, Icarus, 219, 505-507,

Hibbard, K., Gold, R., Dankanich, J., Rivkin, A., Schwinger, M., Seifert, H., (2011), Trojan tour mission concepts provide several options for cost-effective break-through science, Nuclear and Emerging Technologies for Space 2011, NETS-2011, 100-107,

Landis, R., Barbee, B., Mink, R., Garvin, J., Sellers, P., Bell, P.A., Mauzy, S., Graham, L., Adamo, D., Mazanek, D., Reed, C., Cheng, A., Rivkin, A., Gold, R., Hibbard, K., Dissly, R., Jones, T., Johnson, L., Gerstenmaier, W., (2011), A simplified, low risk strategy for the exploration of near-earth objects, 62nd International Astronautical Congress 2011, IAC 2011, 3, 1776-1786,

Licandro, J., Campins, H., Kelley, M., Hargrove, K., Pinilla-Alonso, N., Cruikshank, D., Rivkin, A.S., Emery, J., (2011), (65) Cybele: Detection of small silicate grains, water-ice, and organics, Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525,

McCord, T.B., Castillo-Rogez, J., Rivkin, A., (2011), Ceres: Its origin, evolution and structure and Dawn's potential contribution, Space Science Reviews, 163, 63-76,

Rivkin, A.S., Clark, B.E., Ockert-Bell, M., Volquardsen, E., Howell, E.S., Bus, S.J., Thomas, C.A., Shepard, M., (2011), Asteroid 21 Lutetia at 3μm: Observations with IRTF SpeX, Icarus, 216, 62-68,

Rivkin, A.S., Li, J.-Y., Milliken, R.E., Lim, L.F., Lovell, A.J., Schmidt, B.E., McFadden, L.A., Cohen, B.A., (2011), The surface composition of Ceres, Space Science Reviews, 163, 95-116,

Rivkin, A.S., Thomas, C.A., Trilling, D.E., Enga, M.-T., Grier, J.A., (2011), Ordinary chondrite-like colors in small Koronis family members, Icarus, 211, 1294-1297,

Rivkin, Andrew S., Clark, Beth E., Ockert-Bell, Maureen, Volquardsen, Eric, Howell, Ellen S., Bus, Schelte J., Thomas, Cristina A., Shepard, Michael, (2011), Asteroid 21 Lutetia at 3μm: Observations with IRTF SpeX, Icarus, 216, 62-68

Yanamandra-Fisher, P., Simon-Miller, A., Barrado-Izagirre, N., Marchis, F., Mousis, O., Ortiz, J.L., García-Rojas, J., Cecconi, M., Clarke, J.T., Noll, K., Pedraz, S., Wesley, A., Kalas, P., McConnell, N., Golisch, W., Griep, D., Sears, P., Volquardsen, E., Reddy, V., Shara, M., Binzel, R., Grundy, W., Emery, J., Rivkin, A., Thomas, C., Trilling, D., Bjorkman, K., Burgasser, A.J., Campins, H., Sato, T.M., Kasaba, Y., Ziffer, J., Mirzoyan, R., Fitzgerald, M., Bouy, H., Sánchez-Lavega, A., Orton, G.S., Hueso, R., Pérez-Hoyos, S., Fletcher, L.N., García-Melendo, E., Gomez-Forrellad, J.M., de Pater, I., Wong, M., Hammel, H.B., (2011), Long-term evolution of the aerosol debris cloud produced by the 2009 impact on Jupiter, Icarus, 214, 462-476,

Thomas, C.A., Rivkin, A.S., Trilling, D.E., Marie-therese Enga,, Grier, J.A., (2011), Space weathering of small Koronis family members, Icarus, 212, 158-166,

Beth Ellen Clark, Julie Ziffer, David Nesvorny, Humberto Campins, Andrew S. Rivkin, Takahiro Hiroi, Maria Antonietta Barucci, Marcello Fulchignoni, Richard P. Binzel, Sonia Fornasier, Francesca DeMeo, Maureen E. Ockert-Bell, Javier Licandro, Thais Moth{\'{e}}-Diniz, (2010), Spectroscopy of B-type asteroids: Subgroups and meteorite analogs, J. Geophys. Res., 115

Binzel, R.P., Morbidelli, A., Merouane, S., Demeo, F.E., Birlan, M., Vernazza, P., Thomas, C.A., Rivkin, A.S., Bus, S.J., Tokunaga, A.T., (2010), Earth encounters as the origin of fresh surfaces on near-Earth asteroids, Nature, 463, 331-334,

Rivkin, A.S., Emery, J.P., (2010), Detection of ice and organics on an asteroidal surface, Nature, 464, 1322-1323,

Rivkin, A.S., Volquardsen, E.L., (2010), Rotationally-resolved spectra of Ceres in the 3-μm region, Icarus, 206, 327-333,

Rivkin, Andrew S., Volquardsen, Eric L., (2010), Rotationally-resolved spectra of Ceres in the 3-μm region, Icarus, 206, 327-333

Clark, B.E., Ziffer, J., Nesvorny, D., Campins, H., Rivkin, A.S., Hiroi, T., Barucci, M.A., Fulchignoni, M., Binzel, R.P., Fornasier, S., Demeo, F., Ockert-Bell, M.E., Licandro, J., Moth-Diniz, T., (2010), Spectroscopy of B-type asteroids: Subgroups and meteorite analogs, Journal of Geophysical Research E: Planets, 115,

Hibbard, K., Gold, R., Dankanich, J., Rivkin, A., Schwinger, M., Seifert, H., (2010), Trojan tour mission concepts provide several options for cost-effective break-through science, JBIS - Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, 63, 351-356,

Binzel, R.P., Rivkin, A.S., Thomas, C.A., Vernazza, P., Burbine, T.H., DeMeo, F.E., Bus, S.J., Tokunaga, A.T., Birlan, M., (2009), Spectral properties and composition of potentially hazardous Asteroid (99942) Apophis, Icarus, 200, 480-485,

Milliken, R.E., Rivkin, A.S., (2009), Brucite and carbonate assemblages from altered olivine-rich materials on Ceres, Nature Geoscience, 2, 258-261,

Rivkin, A., Chabot, N., DelloRusso, N., (2009), Meteoritics and Planetary Science: Editorial, Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 44,

Rivkin, Andrew, Chabot, Nancy, Russo, Neil Dello, (2009), Editorial, Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 44, 1823

Schmidt, B.E., Thomas, P.C., Bauer, J.M., Li, J.-Y., McFadden, L.A., Mutchler, M.J., Radcliffe, S.C., Rivkin, A.S., Russell, C.T., Wm Parker, J., Stern, S.A., (2009), The shape and surface variation of 2 pallas from the hubble space telescope, Science, 326, 275-278,

Burbine, T.H., Rivkin, A.S., Noble, S.K., Mothé-Diniz, T., Bottke, W.F., McCoy, T.J., Dyar, M.D., Thomas, C.A., (2008), Oxygen and asteroids, Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 68, 273-343,

Bus, S.J., Ockert-Bell, M.E., Clark, B.E., Shepard, M.K., Rivkin, A.S., Binzel, R.P., Thomas, C.A., DeMeo, F.E., Shah, S., (2008), Observations of X/M asteroids across multiple wavelengths, Icarus, 195, 206-219,

Shepard, M.K., Clark, B.E., Nolan, M.C., Benner, L.A.M., Ostro, S.J., Giorgini, J.D., Vilas, F., Jarvis, K., Lederer, S., Lim, L.F., McConnochie, T., Bell, J., Margot, J.-L., Rivkin, A., Magri, C., Scheeres, D., Pravec, P., (2008), Multi-wavelength observations of Asteroid 2100 Ra-Shalom, Icarus, 193, 20-38,

Shepard, M.K., Clark, B.E., Nolan, M.C., Howell, E.S., Magri, C., Giorgini, J.D., Benner, L.A.M., Ostro, S.J., Harris, A.W., Warner, B., Pray, D., Pravec, P., Fauerbach, M., Bennett, T., Klotz, A., Behrend, R., Correia, H., Coloma, J., Casulli, S., Rivkin, A., (2008), A radar survey of M- and X-class asteroids, Icarus, 195, 184-205,

Vernazza, P., Binzel, R.P., Thomas, C.A., DeMeo, F.E., Bus, S.J., Rivkin, A.S., Tokunaga, A.T., (2008), Compositional differences between meteorites and near-Earth asteroids, Nature, 454, 858-860,

Davies, J.K., Harris, A.W., Rivkin, A.S., Wolters, S.D., Green, S.F., McBride, N., Mann, R.K., Kerr, T.H., (2007), Near-infrared spectra of 12 Near-Earth Objects, Icarus, 186, 111-125,

Rivkin, A.S., Trilling, D.E., Thomas, C.A., DeMeo, F., Spahr, T.B., Binzel, R.P., (2007), Composition of the L5 Mars Trojans: Neighbors, not siblings, Icarus, 192, 434-441,

Trilling, D.E., Rivkin, A.S., Stansberry, J.A., Spahr, T.B., Crudo, R.A., Davies, J.K., (2007), Albedos and diameters of three Mars Trojan asteroids, Icarus, 192, 442-447,

Volquardsen, E.L., Rivkin, A.S., Bus, S.J., (2007), Composition of hydrated near-Earth object (100085) 1992 UY4, Icarus, 187, 464-468,

Rivkin, A.S., (2006), An introduction to near-earth objects, Johns Hopkins APL Technical Digest (Applied Physics Laboratory), 27, 111-120,

Rivkin, A.S., McFadden, L.A., Binzel, R.P., Sykes, M., (2006), Rotationally-resolved spectroscopy of Vesta I: 2-4 μm region, Icarus, 180, 464-472,

Rivkin, A.S., McFadden, L.A., Binzel, R.P., Sykes, M., (2006), Rotationally-resolved spectroscopy of Vesta I: 2–4 μm region, Icarus, 180, 464-472

Rivkin, A.S., Volquardsen, E.L., Clark, B.E., (2006), The surface composition of Ceres: Discovery of carbonates and iron-rich clays, Icarus, 185, 563-567,

Shepard, M.K., Margot, J.-L., Magri, C., Nolan, M.C., Schlieder, J., Estes, B., Bus, S.J., Volquardsen, E.L., Rivkin, A.S., Benner, L.A.M., Giorgini, J.D., Ostro, S.J., Busch, M.W., (2006), Radar and infrared observations of binary near-Earth Asteroid 2002 CE26, Icarus, 184, 198-210,

Vokrouhlický, D., Brož, M., Morbidelli, A., Bottke, W.F., Nesvorný, D., Lazzaro, D., Rivkin, A.S., (2006), Yarkovsky footprints in the Eos family, Icarus, 182, 92-117,

Pieters, C.M., Binzel, R.P., Bogard, D., Hiroi, T., Mittlefehldt, D.W., Nyquist, L., Rivkin, A., Takeda, H., (2005), Asteroid-meteorite links: The Vesta conundrum (s), Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union, 1, 273-288,

Rivkin, A.S., Binzel, R.P., Bus, S.J., (2005), Constraining near-Earth object albedos using near-infrared spectroscopy, Icarus, 175, 175-180,

Binzel, R.P., Birlan, M., Bus, S.J., Harris, A.W., Rivkin, A.S., Fornasier, S., (2004), Spectral observations for near-Earth objects including potential target 4660 Nereus : Results from Meudon remote observations at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF), Planetary and Space Science, 52, 291-296,

BINZEL, Richard P., PEROZZI, Ettore, RIVKIN, Andrew S., ROSSI, Alessandro, HARRIS, Alan W., BUS, Schelte J., VALSECCHI, Giovanni B., SLIVAN, Stephen M., (2004), Dynamical and compositional assessment of near-Earth object mission targets, Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 39, 351-366

Binzel, R.P., Rivkin, A.S., Stuart, J.S., Harris, A.W., Bus, S.J., Burbine, T.H., (2004), Observed spectral properties of near-Earth objects: Results for population distribution, source regions, and space weathering processes, Icarus, 170, 259-294,

Buratti, B.J., Britt, D.T., Soderblom, L.A., Hicks, M.D., Boice, D.C., Brown, R.H., Meier, R., Nelson, R.M., Oberst, J., Owen, T.C., et al., (2004), 9969 Braille: Deep Space 1 infrared spectroscopy, geometric albedo, and classification, Icarus, 167, 129-135,

Burbine, T.H., McCoy, T.J., Sunshine, J.M., Rivkin, A.S., Binzel, R.P., Bus, S.J., (2004), Near-infrared spectroscopy of vestoids, Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 39,

Clark, B.E., Bus, S.J., Rivkin, A.S., McConnochie, T., Sanders, J., Shah, S., Hiroi, T., Shepard, M., (2004), E-type asteroid spectroscopy and compositional modeling, Journal of Geophysical Research E: Planets, 109,

Clark, B.E., Bus, S.J., Rivkin, A.S., Shepard, M.K., Shah, S., (2004), Spectroscopy of x-type asteroids, Astronomical Journal, 128, 3070-3081,

Grier, J.A., Kring, D.A., Swindle, T.D., Rivkin, A.S., Cohen, B.A., Britt, D.T., (2004), Analyses of the chondritic meteorite Orvinio (H6): Insight into the origins and evolution of shocked H chondrite material, Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 39, 1475-1493,

Rivkin, A.S., Binzel, R.P., Sunshine, J., Bus, S.J., Burbine, T.H., Saxena, A., (2004), Infrared spectroscopic observations of 69230 Hermes (1937 UB): Possible unweathered endmember among ordinary chondrite analogs, Icarus, 172, 408-414,

Binzel, R.P., Perozzi, E., Rivkin, A.S., Rossi, A., Harris, A.W., Bus, S.J., Valsecchi, G.B., Slivan, S.M., (2004), Dynamical and compositional assessment of near-Earth object mission targets, Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 39, 351-366,

A. S. RIVKIN, J. K. DAVIES, J. R. JOHNSON, S. L. ELLISON, D. E. TRILLING, R. H. BROWN, L. A. LEBOFSKY, (2003), Hydrogen concentrations on C-class asteroids derived from remote sensing, Meteoritics {\&} Planetary Science, 38, 1383

Fornasier, S., Barucci, M.A., Binzel, R.P., Birlan, M., Fulchignoni, M., Barbieri, C., Bus, S.J., Harris, A.W., Rivkin, A.S., Lazzarin, M., Dotto, E., Doressoundiram, A., Bertini, I., Peixinho, N., Michałowski, T., (2003), A portrait of 4979 Otawara, target of the Rosetta space mission, Astronomy and Astrophysics, 398, 327-333,

Rivkin, A.S., Binzel, R.P., Howell, E.S., Bus, S.J., Grier, J.A., (2003), Spectroscopy and photometry of Mars Trojans, Icarus, 165, 349-354,

Rivkin, A.S., Davies, J.K., Johnson, J.R., Ellison, S.L., Trilling, D.E., Brown, R.H., Lebofsky, L.A., (2003), Hydrogen concentrations on C-class asteroids derived from remote sensing, Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 38, 1383-1398,

Pravec, P., Kušnirák, P., Šarounová, L., Harris, A.W., Binzel, R.P., Rivkin, A.S., (2002), Large coherent asteroid 2001 OE84, European Space Agency, (Special Publication) ESA SP, 743-745,

Rivkin, A, (2002), Near-Infrared Spectrophotometry of Phobos and Deimos, Icarus, 156, 64-75,

BINZEL, Richard P., RIVKIN, Andrew S., BUS, Schelte J., SUNSHINE, Jessica M., BURBINE, Thomas H., (2001), MUSES-C target asteroid (25143) 1998 SF36: A reddened ordinary chondrite, Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 36, 1167-1172

Rivkin, A.S., Clark, B.E., (2001), Observations of 433 Eros from 1.25 to 3.35 microns, Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 36, 1727-1729,

Binzel, R.P., Rivkin, A.S., Bus, S.J., Sunshine, J.M., Burbine, T.H., (2001), MUSES-C target asteroid (25143) 1998 SF36: A reddened ordinary chondrite, Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 36, 1167-1172,

Rivkin, A.S., Howell, E.S., Lebofsky, L.A., Clark, B.E., Britt, D.T., (2000), The Nature of M-Class Asteroids from 3-μm Observations, Icarus, 145, 351-368,

Trilling, D.E., Brown, R.H., Rivkin, A.S., (2000), Circumstellar dust disks around stars with known planetary companions, Astrophysical Journal Letters, 529, 499-505,

Turtle, E.P., Minitti, M.E., Cohen, B.A., Chabot, N.L., Tourbier, D., Bachman, C., Brock, J., Foerstner, R., Hoppa, G.V., Kay, J., Lewicki, C.A., Mastrapa, R.M.E., Patel, J., Sherman, N., Spitale, J.N., Rivkin, A.S., Trilling, D.E., Villegas, D., Weitz, C.M., (1999), AMBASSADOR: Asteroid sample return mission to 7 iris, Acta Astronautica, 45, 415-422,

Bosh, A.S., Rivkin, A.S., Percival, J.W., Taylor, M., Van Citters, G.W., (1997), Saturn ring-plane crossing, May 1995: Pole precession and ring thickness, Icarus, 129, 555-561,

Merényi, E., Howell, E.S., Rivkin, A.S., Lebofsky, L.A., (1997), Prediction of water in asteroids from spectral data shortward of 3 μm, Icarus, 129, 421-439,

Rivkin, A, (1997), Infrared Spectrophotometry of the NEAR Flyby Target 253 Mathilde, Icarus, 127, 255-257

Bosh, A.S., Rivkin, A.S., (1996), Observations of Saturn's inner satellites during the May 1995 ring-plane crossing, Science, 272, 518-521,

Rivkin, A.S., Howell, E.S., Britt, D.T., Lebofsky, L.A., Nolan, M.C., Branston, D.D., (1995), 3-μm Spectrophotometric Survey of M- and E-Class Asteroids, Icarus, 117, 90-100,

Shirono, S., Tada, M., Nakamura, A.M., Kadono, T., Rivkin, A., Fujiwara, A., (1993), Efficiency of linear and angular momentum transfer in oblique impact, Planetary and Space Science, 41, 687-692,